Susan B. Anthony - Wikipedia
Anthony and Stanton founded the National Woman Suffrage Myra Bradwell had passed the Illinois law exam, and a circuit court judge and a. Although Anthony figures perhaps more prominently in popular memory, Elizabeth Cady Stanton was as an important force in the 19th-century women's. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony In , Stanton started working with Susan B. Anthony, a well-known abolitionist. The two women made a great.
But she quickly became dissatisfied with only these roles. Stanton wrote a Declaration of Sentiments, which she modeled on the Declaration of Independence, to formally assert the equality of men and women and propose resolutions, including female suffrage. The Seneca Falls Convention was attended by over people, including Frederick Douglass, who spoke informally at the convention. One hundred of the participants signed the Declaration of Sentiments.
Instead of attending, she chose to be a sponsor and have a speech read. Collaboration with Susan B. Anthony, who was most active in the temperance movement at the time. The two would form a life-long friendship and collaboration. Convinced that gaining equality for women would have the greatest effect, giving women the ability to affect both temperance and abolition, Stanton and Anthony focused their energies on suffrage.
After the Civil War, they split from the less radical American Woman Suffrage Association founded by Lucy Stone, which believed in precedence—the idea that suffrage for free black men was more important than suffrage for women—and which focused on winning the right to vote state-by-state. Instead, Anthony and Stanton campaigned for a constitutional amendment for universal suffrage in America and founded the National Woman Suffrage Association in with Matilda Joslyn Gage.
Stanton and Gage wrote the Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States, which Anthony presented, uninvited, at the Centennial celebration in Washington in He believed that white women in particular were already somewhat empowered by their connections and ability to influence their voting fathers, husbands, brothers, and sons and that obtaining the vote for freed black men was more urgent and important.
Following the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment inwhich stated, "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdictions thereof, are citizens of the United States and the State wherein they reside" and prohibited limiting the rights of any citizen, Stanton and Anthony took the position that the amendment actually did give women the right to vote.
Both women—Anthony in and Stanton in —along with many others, would go to the polls insisting on voting. Anthony began publishing the weekly newspaper The Revolution in New York City, with editorials often written by Stanton. The paper provided a strong counterpoint to the prejudices evident in most other newspapers of the day, arguing for equal rights, suffrage, and equal pay. In NovemberStanton joined the New York Lyceum Bureau, which was an organization that provided lectures, dramatic performances, class instruction, and debates and was instrumental in adult continuing education and was part of the cultural fabric of the 19th-century life.
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Stanton would travel and lecture, mainly in the Midwest and on the western frontier, for about eight months of the year untiladdressing a wide variety of topics for a wider audience than the suffrage conventions she had previously limited herself to.
One of her most popular speeches, Our Girls, addressed the education and socialization of girls in a way that challenged the traditional way that girls were reared; it was a practical way to spread the principals of equality that Stanton had long fought for.
When she stopped lecturing inshe had more time to devote to writing and travel, though she continued to give three or four major speeches a year. She and Anthony had begun writing what would be a 3-volume history of the suffrage movement; volumes one and two of the History of Woman Suffrage were published in and Stanton worked on the third volume, published inin and when she resumed housekeeping to take care of her aging husband—Henry Stanton died in Final Years, Legacy In the s, Stanton further distanced herself from the more conservative, mainly Christian leaders of the National American Woman Suffrage Association—she believed that Christianity was inherently sexist, relegating women to an inferior position in society.
While she had been unable to obtain a formal college degree, both of her daughters earned advanced degrees; Margaret attended Vassar and Columbia, while Harriot obtained both undergraduate and graduate degrees from Vassar. On the morning of July 19,the year-old glove maker drove in a horse-drawn wagon to the Wesleyan Methodist Chapel in the upstate New York town of Seneca Falls. To her surprise, Woodward found dozens of other women and a group of men waiting to enter the chapel, all of them as eager as she to learn what a discussion of "the social, civil, and religious rights of women" might produce.
The convention was the brainchild of year-old Elizabeth Cady Stanton, daughter of Margaret and Judge Daniel Cady and wife of Henry Stanton, a noted abolitionist politician. Born in Johnstown, New York, Cady Stanton demonstrated both an intellectual bent and a rebellious spirit from an early age.
In she provoked her father by marrying Stanton, a handsome, liberal reformer and further defied convention by deliberately omitting the word "obey" from her wedding vows. Marriage to Henry Stanton brought Elizabeth Cady Stanton—she insisted on retaining her maiden name—into contact with other independent-minded women. The newlyweds spent their honeymoon at the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London where, much to their chagrin, women delegates were denied their seats and deprived of a voice in the proceedings.
Among the delegates was Lucretia Coffin Mott, a liberal Hicksite Quaker preacher and an accomplished public speaker in the American abolitionist movement, who was also disillusioned by the lack of rights granted women. I felt a new born sense of dignity and freedom. Eight years passed, however, before they fulfilled their mutual goal.
For the first years of her marriage, Cady Stanton settled happily into middle-class domestic life, first in Johnstown and subsequently in Boston, then the hub of reformist activity. At tea, Cady Stanton poured out to the group "the torrent of my long-accumulating discontent. However, when male members of the movement refused to let her speak at rallies simply because she was a woman, she realized that women had to win the right to speak in public and to vote before they could accomplish anything else.
Her lifelong friendship and partnership with Elizabeth Cady Stanton —who had proposed a resolution giving women the right to vote, also began in Anthony attended her first women's rights convention in From that first convention until the end of the Civil War —65she campaigned from door-to-door, in legislatures, and in meetings for the two causes of women's rights and the abolition of slavery. The passage of the New York State Married Woman's Property and Guardianship Law inwhich gave married women in New York greater property rights, was her first major legislative victory.
Formation of suffrage movement The Civil War was fought between northern and southern states mainly over the issues of slavery and the South's decision to leave the Union to form an independent nation.
With the outbreak of the Civil War, Anthony focused her attention on ending slavery. She organized the Women's National Loyal League, which gathered petitions to force passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution to end slavery. When the war ended, she increased her efforts to gain the right to vote for women as well as for African American males.
However, her former male allies from the antislavery movement were unwilling to help her fight for the first cause, saying the time was not yet right for women's suffrage. Saddened by this defeat but refusing to give up the fight, Anthony worked solely for women's suffrage from this time to the end of her life, organizing the National Woman Suffrage Association with Stanton.
The association's New York weekly, The Revolution, was created in to promote women's causes. After it went bankrupt inAnthony traveled across the country for six years giving lectures to raise money to pay the newspaper's ten-thousand-dollar debt.
In Susan B. Spotting an unoccupied bandstand outside the hall, Anthony mounted it and read the Declaration to a large crowd. Women won the right to vote in Wyoming in and in Utah in Her lectures in Washington and four other states led directly to invitations for her to address the state legislatures there. The Women's Christian Temperance Unionthe largest women's organization in the country, also supported suffrage. She sometimes had the use of the private railroad car of Jane Stanforda sympathizer whose husband owned a major railroad.
While lobbying and preparing for the annual suffrage conventions in Washington, she was provided with a free suite of rooms in the Riggs Hotel, whose owners supported her work. Trial of Susan B. Anthony The NWSA convention of adopted a strategy of urging women to attempt to vote, and then, after being turned away, to file suits in federal courts to challenge laws that prevented women from voting. The legal basis for the challenge would be the recently adopted Fourteenth Amendmentpart of which reads: On election day, Anthony and fourteen other women from her ward convinced the election inspectors to allow them to cast ballots, but women in other wards were turned back.
Deputy Marshal and charged with illegally voting. The other women who had voted were also arrested but released pending the outcome of Anthony's trial. Her speech was entitled "Is it a Crime for a U. We appeal to women everywhere to exercise their too long neglected 'citizen's right to vote. Attorney arranged for the trial to be moved to the federal circuit courtwhich would soon sit in neighboring Ontario County with a jury drawn from that county's inhabitants.
Anthony responded by speaking throughout that county also before the trial began. Hunt had never served as a trial judge; originally a politician, he had begun his judicial career by being elected to the New York Court of Appeals.
Anthonybegan on June 17, and was closely followed by the national press.
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Following a rule of common law at that time which prevented criminal defendants in federal courts from testifying, Hunt refused to allow Anthony to speak until the verdict had been delivered. On the second day of the trial, after both sides had presented their cases, Justice Hunt delivered his lengthy opinion, which he had put in writing.
In the most controversial aspect of the trial, Hunt directed the jury to deliver a guilty verdict. She responded with "the most famous speech in the history of the agitation for woman suffrage", according to Ann D.
Gordona historian of the women's movement. My natural rights, my civil rights, my political rights, my judicial rights, are all alike ignored. If Hunt had ordered her to be jailed until she paid the fine, Anthony could have taken her case to the Supreme Court. Hunt instead announced he would not order her taken into custody, closing off that legal avenue.
Supreme Court in put an end to the strategy of trying to achieve women's suffrage through the court system when it ruled in Minor v. Happersett that "the Constitution of the United States does not confer the right of suffrage upon anyone".
History of Woman Suffrage Cover of Life magazine in Titled "Ancient History", it shows an Anthony-like figure in classical dress leading a protest for women's rights Anthony and Stanton initiated the project of writing a history of the women's suffrage movement in Anthony had for years saved letters, newspaper clippings, and other materials of historical value to the women's movement. Inshe moved into the Stanton household in New Jersey along with several trunks and boxes of these materials to begin working with Stanton on the History of Woman Suffrage.
In her letters, she said the project "makes me feel growly all the time No warhorse ever panted for the rush of battle more than I for outside work. I love to make history but hate to write it. She acted as her own publisher, which presented several problems, including finding space for the inventory.
She was forced to limit the number of books she was storing in the attic of her sister's house because the weight was threatening to collapse the structure. The first three volumes, which cover the movement up towere published between and and were produced by Stanton, Anthony and Matilda Joslyn Gage.
Anthony handled the production details and the extensive correspondence with contributors. Anthony published Volume 4, which covers the period from toinafter Stanton's death, with the help of Ida Husted HarperAnthony's designated biographer.
The last two volumes, which bring the history up towere completed in by Harper after Anthony's death. The History of Woman Suffrage preserves an enormous amount of material that might have been lost forever. Written by leaders of one wing of the divided women's movement Lucy Stone, their main rival, refused to have anything to do with the projectit does not, however, give a balanced view of events where their rivals are concerned.
It overstates the role of Anthony and Stanton, and it understates or ignores the roles of Stone and other activists who did not fit into the historical narrative that Anthony and Stanton developed. Because it was for years the main source of documentation about the suffrage movement, historians have had to uncover other sources to provide a more balanced view.
Together they met with leaders of European women's movements and began the process of creating an international women's organization. Delegates from fifty-three women's organizations in nine countries met in Washington in to form the new association, which was called the International Council of Women ICW. The delegates represented a wide variety of organizations, including suffrage associations, professional groups, literary clubs, temperance unions, labor leagues and missionary societies.
Anthony opened the first session of the ICW and presided over most events. President Cleveland and his wife sponsored a reception at the White House for delegates to the ICW's founding congress. Anthony played a prominent role on all four occasions. It hosted several world congresses, each dealing with a specialized topic, such as religion, medicine and science.
At almost the last moment, the U. Congress decided that the Exposition should also recognize the role of women.
After it was over, one of the organizers of the Exposition's congress of women revealed that Anthony had played a pivotal but hidden role in that last-minute decision.
Fearing that a public campaign would rouse opposition, Anthony had worked quietly to organize support for this project among women of the political elite. Anthony increased the pressure by covertly initiating a petition that was signed by wives and daughters of Supreme Court judges, senators, cabinet members and other dignitaries.
Two of Anthony's closest associates were appointed to organize the women's congress. They arranged for the International Council of Women to make its upcoming meeting part of the Exposition by expanding its scope and calling itself the World's Congress of Representative Women. Its 81 sessions, many held simultaneously, were attended by overpeople, and women's suffrage was discussed at almost every session.
Susan B. Anthony
According to a co-worker, Anthony, "for the moment as enthusiastic as a girl, waved her handkerchief at him, while the big audience, catching the spirit of the scene, wildly applauded. The existing International Council of Women could not be expected to support a campaign for women's suffrage because it was a broad alliance whose more conservative members would object. InCatt organized a preparatory meeting in Washington, with Anthony as chair, that was attended by delegates from several countries.
The founding meeting was chaired by Anthony, who was declared to be the new organization's honorary president and first member. From to they were together almost every day working on the History of Woman Suffrage. When Stanton arrived at an important meeting in with her speech not yet written, Anthony insisted that Stanton stay in her hotel room until she had written it, and she placed a younger colleague outside her door to make sure she did so. As the drive for women's suffrage gained momentum, Anthony began to form alliances with more conservative groups, such as the Women's Christian Temperance Unionthe nation's largest women's organization and a supporter of women's suffrage.