Immunology Quiz- Antigen And Antibody Structure - ProProfs Quiz
Antigens and Antibodies Scientists call Antigens trigger an immune response in the body. One of the These cells produce antibodies that bind to antigens and neutralize them. Each B Activities Take a ten question quiz about this page . Antigens are the particles that cause the body to create an antibody. Tests to detect antibodies and antigens help to identify certain infections. Explain the relationship between antigens and antibodies. 2 LO: SWBAT describe how our body becomes resistant to disease DN: Quiz #2 HW: Read page.
Does this differ depending on the type of cell that the TcR is found on?
What is an antigen? What are the characteristics of a good antigen? What is the relationship between lets say a bacterial cell and an antigen? What about between an antigen and an epitope antigenic determinant? What is the relationship between an antigenic determinant and a hapten?
Can an IgG molecule bind to two different epitopes or can it only bind to two identical epitopes? What are heterophile antigens? What are heterophile agglutinins? Why might antibody made to Streptococcus pyogenes damage the heart? Why would antibody binding to the heart damage the heart? What is the name of this disease?
What are the 5 classes of human antibody? Draw the structure of the antibody molecule monomer and describe the location of the V-region and C-region of each chain; the antigen binding sites; the Fab region; the Fc region; the L-chain; the H-chain. Describe the important characteristics of each of the human antibody classes.: Which is the first made? Which is the biggest? Which is a dimer? Which is the most important in a primary response, what about a secondary response? Which antibody can pass thru the placenta?
Which is found in milk? Which is responsible for allergic reactions? What is the difference between the primary response and the secondary response? How does this relate to immunization or resistance to certain infections the second time around? What are the major histocompatibility complex proteins? How many types are there and what are they called in humans?
What happens during the "antigen-independent phase" of the generation of diversity? Explain what happens with the "minigenes" for the V-region of the heavy chain and the light chain of the antibody molecule. At the end of this phase one has generated a repertoire -- what is meant by that phrase? Explain what happens during the "antigen-dependent phase" of the generation of diversity?
What is meant by clonal selection and clonal expansion? How does a B-cell know if a matching antigen is around? What happens when a B-cell is activated?.
What are the similarities between this in B-cells versus T-cells? What is meant by type 1 helper T-cells Th1 and type 2 helper T-cells Th2? What are some of the things that activated macrophages can do? What are the general things that serology is used for? What is agglutination and what is precipitation?
Microbes and the human body – Antibody–antigen complex
What is the difference between them and how are they the same? What is meant by Prozone or the zone of antibody excess? Why is this important? How does the Coombs test or the antiglobulin test solve the prozone problem?
How does viral hemagglutination inhibition work and what does it measure? Review questions below may not appear on the exam It depends on how far we get by March What is the Ouchterlony test? What are lines of identity, non-identity and partial identity? How does it work? The immune system develops all kinds of cells that help to destroy disease causing microbes. Some of these cells are specifically designed for a certain kind of disease.
All throughout the body, disease fighting cells are stored in the immune system waiting for the signal to go to battle. The immune system is able to communicate throughout the entire body. When pathogens are detected, messages are sent out, warning that the body is being attacked. The immune system then directs the correct attacking cells to the problem area to destroy the invaders.
Antigens and Antibodies Scientists call the invaders that can cause disease antigens.Antigens and Antibodies
Antigens trigger an immune response in the body. One of the main immune responses is the production of proteins that help to fight off the antigens. These proteins are called antibodies. How do the antibodies know which cells to attack?
In order to work properly, the immune system must know which cells are good cells and which are bad. Antibodies are designed with specific binding sites that only bind with certain antigens. They ignore "good" cells and only attack the bad ones. You can see from the picture below that the antibodies each have a specially designed binding site.
They will only bind with the antigen that has a "marker" that matches up perfectly. Types of Immunity Cells The immune system has cells that perform specific functions. These cells are found in the blood stream and are called white blood cells.
B cells - B cells are also called B lymphocytes. These cells produce antibodies that bind to antigens and neutralize them. Each B cell makes one specific type of antibody. For example, there is a specific B cell that helps to fight off the flu. T cells - T cells are also called T lymphocytes. These cells help to get rid of good cells that have already been infected. Helper T cells - Helper T cells tell B cells to start making antibodies or instruct killer T cells to attack.
Killer T cells - Killer T cells destroy cells that have been infected by the invader. Memory cells - Memory cells remember antigens that have already attacked the body.