Culture of Pakistan - history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family
Lines of demarcation between India and Pakistan in northern border areas .. Wedding customs vary somewhat among provinces, but the Muslim marriage is. The Henry Art Gallery's textile holdings represent 24 states in India and Pakistan and reflect the complex religious, linguistic, ethnic, and caste relationships that. There may be hope yet for India and Pakistan. difficult and volatile India- Pakistan relationship and the need to end the conflict. evidence on Lashkar-e- Taiba and other terror outfits responsible for carrying out the attack.
It also has a courtyard that has enough space for forty thousand people. Islamabad also has a sports complex, art galleries, a museum of natural history, and four universities. The ancient city of Rawalpindi, on the border of Islamabad, has a history that dates back three thousand years.
While many new modern buildings have been added to this city, it has retained much of its historical look and is well known for its bazaars that specialize in handicrafts.
Rawalpindi is home to Linquat Memorial Hall with a large auditorium and library; Ayub National Park; and the Rawalpindi Golf Course, which was completed in but is still in regular use. Another well-known urban area is Lahore, founded four thousand years ago. Lahore was the cultural center of the Mogul Empire, which glorified it with palaces, gardens, and mosques.
It is the second-largest city in Pakistan and the capital of Punjab. Some of its historical sites include the Royal Fort, which was built in by Akbar the Great, and Wazir Khan's mosque, which was built in and is still considered one of the most beautiful mosques in all of South Asia.
Another ancient but still famous site in Lahore is the Shalimar Gardens, which were originally laid out in by Mogul emperor Shah-Jehan. The garden is surrounded by high walls and a watchtower at each of the four corners. The garden is used as the site of regular special state receptions.
Lahore is also home to several other well-known mosques, museums, and parks. A more recent historical site in Lahore is the Minar-e-Pakistan, where a resolution was passed in demanding creation of a separate homeland for the Muslims. The minar is an estimated feet 60 meters high. Another equally well-known urban area is the city of Karachi, which was the first capital of Pakistan. Karachi is in the south of the nation and in addition to being a modern city on the shores of the Arabian Sea, it has a number of interesting sites, including the Masjid-e-Tooba which is said to be the largest single-dome mosque, and several art galleries and bazaars.
It has a wide variety of water sports and remains the center of commerce and industry.
India and Pakistan | Textiles and Costumes | Henry Art Gallery
There are a number of other urban areas throughout Pakistan, but one of the best known is the city of Peshawar, which is the northernmost major city and is home to the gateway to the Khyber Pass. Peshawar is a city of Pathan tribals who are also Muslims. Alexander the Great and parts of his army stayed in this city for forty days in B. Balahissar Fort is on both the eastern and western approaches to the city, and it is from near here that one can take a train along the mountain routes of the Khyber Pass.
While the city is centuries old, the modern Peshawar is well known for its bazaars and for several colleges and a university. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. Because at least 95 percent of the Pakistani population is Muslim, there are two food customs that are followed almost universally. One is that Muslims do not eat pork therefore beef, chicken, lamb, and fish are the basic foodsand the other is that during the month of Ramadan, fasting is a daily activity.
Spices and curry are an essential part of any Pakistani recipe. The most prevalent spices include chili powder, tumeric, garlic, paprika, black and red pepper, cumin seed, bay leaf, coriander, cardamom, cloves, ginger, cinnamon, saffron, nutmeg, and poppy seeds, among others.
Using yogurt to marinate meats is another typical recipe. Because of the use of spices and curry for the main dish, the usual side dish is plain rice. Lentils are another common specialty. The food in the south is more exotic and highly spiced, while that in the north often features plain barbecued meat as the main dish.
Usually any meat, fowl, or seafood is curried, and frying is the typical method of cooking. Ghee, which is clarified butter, is another commonly used recipe item and is often used for frying.
Wheat and flour products are considered mainstays of the daily diet, and the use of pickles, chutneys, preserves, and sauces along with curried meats, seafood, vegetables, and lentils and are why Pakistani cuisine has such a unique flavor. Green tea is the typical drink served at all meals. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Fasting is an important part of the Muslim observance of Ramadan, but food does play a role on many other occasions.
One such event is the Eid-ul-Azha Feast of Sacrifice in the last month of the Muslim calendar, commemorating the occasion when the prophet Abraham was about to sacrifice his son in response to an order from God. Muslims who can afford it are required to sacrifice a sheep, goat, camel, or cow symbolizing Abraham's submission to God. Eating the meat is part of the festival celebration activity. The important religious festival Shab-I-Barat involves a special type of pudding known as halwa and unleavened bread known as nan being distributed among the poor.
The halwa and nan dishes are specially decorated with silver or gold leaves and also are sent to relatives and neighbors. Workers on a community sanitation project examine the pipes for a new sewer in Faisalabad. Food also plays a role in the celebration of the end of the Ramadan fasting period. This starts with a special breakfast of sheer kharma a sweet dishwhich is vermicelli cooked in milk with dried dates, raisins, almonds, and other nuts.
In addition, crowds hurry to local bazaars to purchase fruit, meat, and sweets as well as new clothes and jewelry. Sweets are distributed as part of the celebration of the birth of a new baby in a family, and an animal sacrificial offering is also made—one goat for a girl and two for a boy, with the animal meat distributed among the poor or among friends and relatives. Food also is involved in a ceremony celebrating a child becoming six or seven months old.
Sisters and relatives place rice pudding in the infant's mouth using a silver spoon, and a drop of chicken broth is also put in the mouth. After this ceremony the adults then hold an elaborate dinner concluded with a special dessert called kheer. Pakistan is a poor country and its economic outlook is bleak. It relies heavily on foreign loans and grants, and debt obligations take nearly 50 percent of the government's expenditures.
A large number of Pakistanis, estimated at 35 percent, live below the poverty line. Land Tenure and Property. The major crops are cotton, wheat, rice, and sugarcane.
A large percentage of the commercial activities include the sale of handicraft items such as the carpets for which Pakistan is well known. Major industries of Pakistan include textiles, cement, fertilizer, steel, sugar, electric goods, and shipbuilding. Pakistan's major exports include cotton, textile goods, rice, leather items, carpets, sports goods, fruit, and handicrafts. Major imports include industrial equipment, vehicles, iron ore, petroleum, and edible oil. A caravan along the Silk Road.
Forty-eight percent of workers are in the service sector, 27 percent are in industry, and 25 percent are in agriculture.
Social Stratification Classes and Castes. There is no caste system in Pakistan. There are high-income, middle-income and a large number of low-income persons throughout the country.
Locale makes an important difference in the quality of life; a low-income person in an urban area has more problems than one living in a tribal, mountainous area.
Symbols of Social Stratification. There have been and continue to be a number of social development shortcomings in Pakistan, but in recognition of them, the government in — initiated the Social Action Program SAP to make social development and social services available to all levels of the Pakistanis.
Reports show that while some had benefited, the rural people who were meant to benefit mostly did not. Some of the program's expenditures were for elementary education, primary health, welfare, and rural water supply and sanitation. It is believed that many people do not understand the purpose and scope of the SAP and that substantial changes must be made in the program if it is to be successful. The government of Pakistan consists of an elected prime minister, a president, and a Parliament that consists of the Senate Upper House and the National Assembly Lower House.
There are 57 members of the Senate and members of the National Assembly. The prime minister is the head of government, and the president, who is elected by the legislature, is the head of state. There are also ministers in charge of government divisions such as education and tourism. These are appointed by the prime minister. They in turn appoint the governors of the different states within the country. Also appointed by the prime minister are the chief justices of the Supreme Court.
Leadership and Political Officials. Each individual state within the country has a governor, and each city has its own mayor. Additionally, most tribal groups have a head chief. Social Problems and Controls. The greatest social problem in Pakistan is drug use. There are both governmental and non-government programs Women gathered together at a wedding in Islamabad. Muslim marriages unite not only a couple but also their families. Branches of the military are the army, navy, air force, civil armed forces, and national guard.
The military of Pakistan consists of members from all ethnic groups within the country. Their duties have included participation in United Nations UN peacekeeping and nation-building activities in different areas of the world.
Soldiers in the Pakistani Army are regular participants in the long-running dispute, sometimes resulting in violence, with India regarding sovereignty over Kashmir. Military activity in Pakistan has included four military coups. After those in,the government was returned to civilian control via popular election.
The most recent coup took place in Octoberand toward the end of a general was still acting as the head of the government, although he has promised a democratic election for a new prime minister in the near future. Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations There are a number of nongovernmental organizations NGOs within Pakistan, including the Aurat and Behood women's organizations, as well as international Lions and Rotary clubs, to which a large number of men belong.
The World Bank and its various agencies have been active in Pakistan since The Aga Khan Rural Support Program has worked to build up village organizations with separate groups for men and women and then, through their groups, to launch a number of development activities. The Orange Pilot Project, headquartered in Karachi, has been active in urban development, including working to improve one of Karachi's worst slum areas, with the first focus being on sanitation, followed by a range of community development activities.
The majority of Pakistani women are homemakers, and men are generally referred to as the breadwinners. The largest percentage of working women in Pakistan are nurses or teachers. It has been believed that Pakistan during the s, then under Zulfikar Ali Bhuttoin retaliation began supporting Islamist factions in Afghanistan.
The later Soviet intervention in Afghanistan to prevent further escalation and eventual Islamist takeover of the country proved disastrous afterwards. The United States and its allies feared direct Soviet involvement in Afghanistan and began aiding Pakistan's support for the Afghan Mujaheddin, in hopes of crippling the Soviet Union.
The Soviet-Afghan war turned out to be a stalemate with heavy casualties on all sides and costly for the Soviets. Under international agreement, the Soviets withdrew.
But various Afghan factions fought one another and their external supporters, including the Soviet Union, Iran, Pakistan and others disagreed on which should be in power. Continued rival proxy support led to the civil warin which Pakistan supported in the Talibanseeking to secure its interests in Afghanistan and providing strategic support, while India and Afghanistan's other neighbors backed the Northern Alliance. After the Taliban defeated the Northern Alliance in much of Afghanistan in the Afghan Civil Warthe Taliban regime continued to be supported by Pakistan — one of the three countries to do so — before the 11 September attacks.
India firmly opposed the Taliban and criticized Pakistan for supporting it. India established its links with the Northern Alliance as India officially recognized their government, with the United Nations. India's relations with AfghanistanPakistan's neighbor, and its increasing presence there has irked Pakistan. The Indian embassy bombing in Kabul was a suicide bomb terror attack on the Indian embassy in KabulAfghanistan on 7 July at 8: Bush confronted Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani with evidence and warned him that in the case of another such attack he would have to take "serious action".
Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir According to some reports published by the Council of Foreign Relationsthe Pakistan military and the ISI have provided covert support to terrorist groups active in Kashmirincluding the al-Qaeda affiliate Jaish-e-Mohammed. Many Kashmiri militant groups also maintain their headquarters in Pakistan-administered Kashmirwhich is cited as further proof by the Indian government.
Author Gordon Thomas stated that Pakistan "still sponsored terrorist groups in the state of Kashmir, funding, training and arming them in their war on attrition against India. A car bomb exploded near the Jammu and Kashmir State Assembly on 1 Octoberkilling 27 people on an attack that was blamed on Kashmiri separatists. It was one of the most prominent attacks against India apart from on the Indian Parliament in December The dead bodies of the terrorists and the data recovered from them revealed that Pakistan was solely responsible for the activity.
On 13 Julyarmed men believed to be a part of the Lashkar-e-Toiba threw hand grenades at the Qasim Nagar market in Srinagar and then fired on civilians standing nearby killing twenty-seven and injuring many more. Abdul Ghani Lone, a prominent All Party Hurriyat Conference leader, was assassinated by an unidentified gunmen during a memorial rally in Srinagar. The assassination resulted in wide-scale demonstrations against the Indian occupied-forces for failing to provide enough security cover for Mr.
A car bomb exploded near an armoured Indian Army vehicle in the famous Church Lane area in Srinagar killing four Indian Army personnel, one civilian and the suicide bomber. Terrorist group Hizbul Mujahideenclaimed responsibility for the attack. A terrorist attack on 29 July at Srinigar 's city centre, Budshah Chowk, killed two and left more than 17 people injured. Most of those injured were media journalists. No Terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attack.
A terrorist attack by four heavily armed terrorists on 18 Septembernear the town of Uri in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, killed 18 and left more than 20 people injured. It was reported as "the deadliest attack on security forces in Kashmir in two decades". India blamed Pakistan for carrying out the attacks, an allegation which Pakistan strongly denied and one that brought both nations to the brink of a nuclear confrontation in — However, international peace efforts ensured the cooling of tensions between the two nuclear-capable nations.
The plane was hijacked on 24 December approximately one hour after take off and was taken to Amritsar airport and then to Lahore in Pakistan. After refueling the plane took off for Dubai and then finally landed in KandaharAfghanistan. Under intense media pressure, New Delhi complied with the hijackers' demand and freed Maulana Masood Azhar from its captivity in return for the freedom of the Indian passengers on the flight.
The decision, however, cost New Delhi dearly. Maulana, who is believed to be hiding in Karachilater became the leader of Jaish-e-Mohammedan organisation which has carried out several terrorist acts against Indian security forces in Kashmir. The Fort houses an Indian military unit and a high-security interrogation cell used both by the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Indian Army. The terrorists successfully breached the security cover around the Red Fort and opened fire at the Indian military personnel on duty killing two of them on spot.
The attack was significant because it was carried out just two days after the declaration of the cease-fire between India and Pakistan. The conflict begins after a clash between border patrols in April in the Rann of Kutch in the Indian state of Gujaratbut escalates on August 5, when between 26, and 33, Pakistani soldiers cross the ceasefire line dressed as Kashmiri locals, crossing into Indian-administered Kashmir.
The largest engagement of the war takes place in the Sialkot sector, where between and tanks square off in an inconclusive battle. By September 22, both sides agree to a UN mandated ceasefire, ending the war that had by that point reached a stalemate, with both sides holding some of the other's territory. The conflict begins when the central Pakistani government in West Pakistan, led by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, refuses to allow Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, a Bengali whose party won the majority of seats in the parliamentary elections, to assume the premiership.
A Pakistani military crackdown on Dhaka begins in March, but India becomes involved in the conflict in December, after the Pakistani air force launches a pre-emptive strike on airfields in India's northwest. India then launches a coordinated land, air and sea assault on East Pakistan.dubaiairporthotel.info Arya on India-Pakistan relations : Beyond surgical strikes
The Pakistani army surrenders at Dhaka, and its army of more than 90, become prisoners of war. Hostilities lasted 13 days, making this one of the shortest wars in modern history.
East Pakistan becomes the independent country of Bangladesh on December 6, Click here for more on the Kashmir conflict - Pakistani Prime Minister Zulifiqar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi sign an agreement in the Indian town of Simla, in which both countries agree to "put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations and work for the promotion of a friendly and harmonious relationship and the establishment of a durable peace in the subcontinent".
Both sides agree to settle any disputes "by peaceful means". The Simla Agreement designates the ceasefire line of December 17,as being the new "Line-of-Control LoC " between the two countries, which neither side is to seek to alter unilaterally, and which "shall be respected by both sides without prejudice to the recognised position of either side".
Want Strong Relationship With India, Says Pakistan PM Imran Khan At Kartarpur Ceremony
Pakistan rejects the accord with the Indian government. India refers to the device as a "peaceful nuclear explosive". These include "nuclear power and research reactors, fuel fabrication, uranium enrichment, isotopes separation and reprocessing facilities as well as any other installations with fresh or irradiated nuclear fuel and materials in any form and establishments storing significant quantities of radio-active materials".
Both sides agree to share information on the latitudes and longitudes of all nuclear installations. This agreement is later ratified, and the two countries share information on January 1 each year since then.
Muslim political parties, after accusing the state government of rigging the state legislative elections, form militant wings.
India–Pakistan relations - Wikipedia
Pakistan says that it gives its "moral and diplomatic" support to the movement, reiterating its call for the earlier UN-sponsored referendum. India says that Pakistan is supporting the insurgency by providing weapons and training to fighters, terming attacks against it in Kashmir "cross-border terrorism".
Militant groups taking part in the fight in Kashmir continue to emerge through the s, in part fuelled by a large influx of "mujahideen" who took part in the Afghan war against the Soviets in the s.