Takeda Shingen - Wikipedia
Tokugawa Iemitsu was the grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu (the first shogun, and In Hidetada's reign, the feudal warlords (or daimyos) were powerful, wealthy. Samurai would thus talk of the 'loyalty' View all notes This tendency is quite striking in the selection of quotations that Tsuda offers relationship between vassals and daimyo. Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川家康, January 30, – June 1, ) was the founder and first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which effectively ruled Japan from the Battle of Sekigahara in until the Meiji Restoration in Ieyasu seized power in , received appointment as shōgun in , and .. In , Hideyoshi attacked the last independent daimyō in Japan, Hōjō.
The samurai and his sword was more a class symbol than the fierce warrior pictured in American television mythology. These social classes were categorized based on power as well as prestige.
Ancient Japanese social hierarchy was majorly segregated into two classes the upper Noble Class and the lower Peasant Class. These classes were further sub categorized and thus forming a hierarchy. Following are the major classes in the social hierarchy of Ancient Japan: In the Tokugawa period, there were over two hundred daimyo throughout Japan, whose domains varied in size from tiny 10, units of rice productivity to vast over half a million units of rice productivity.
There were three categories of daimyo. Fudai were those daimyo personally allied with Tokugawa Ieyasu at the time of the Battle of Sekigarhara in Tozama were those daimyo not allied with Tokugawa Ieyasu at the time of the battle, including those who fought against him and those who did not.
Shinpan daimyo were Tokugawa family relatives. In its early period, the bakufu designated three branches of the Tokugawa family descending from Ieyasu as daimyo lineages and potential heirs to the office of shogun should the main line fail to produce a suitable male heir. Later, three more branches assumed shinpan status, making a total of six. Some but not all of these branches had the Tokugawa surname. For bakufu offices requiring daimyo status, normally, only fudai were eligible to for appointment.
Shinpan daimyo occasionally served as bakufu officials, typically as regents for a boy shogun. Tozama were ineligible to become bakufu officials. The fudai domains were small and often clustered around the larger tozama domains. The first three shoguns worked to create a geographic balance by surrounding tozama domains with the presumably more trustworthy fudai, with the fudai located in positions of strategic importance.
Maintaining a balance of power, geographically and otherwise, between all potentially conflicting interests and groups was a conscious policy of the early shoguns. Such oaths would hardly have been worth the paper on which they were written had not the shogun and his government which, of course, included some daimyo--an incentive for these daimyo to preserve the bakufu held the preponderance of military and economic power. It owned all the gold and silver mines throughout Japan.
In theory at least, the daimyo ruled at the pleasure of the shogun, who formally reappointed the daimyo from time to time and had the authority to confiscate or reduce any domain. The first three shoguns often did confiscate domains of daimyo they suspected of disloyalty or other problems.
As time when on and the domains became well established, confiscations by the bakufu took place only under highly unusual circumstances. The Bakufu shogunate was a large bureaucracy. In theory, and sometimes in practice, the shogun ruled as absolute dictator. In fact, some shoguns were weak-willed, incompetent, or simply lazy. The bakufu machinery functioned reasonably well with or without strong shogunal leadership. The two most important agencies within the bakufu were the Senior Councilors roju, literally "elders within" and the Junior Councilors wakadoshiyori, literally, "younger elders".
The Senior Councilors usually consisted of four or five daimyo of a certain type. The whole group met in council to decide important matters of state, such as the selection of a new shogun should the previous one die without naming a successor. The Senior Councilors also supervised several high-ranking officials such as the commissioners that administered the major cities e. The Senior Councilors were a powerful group.
Some shoguns gave them wide latitude; others tried to rein them in.
They supervised inspectors, who kept watch over bakufu retainers of sub-daimyo rank. Therefore, in the pattern of confiscated holdings [ mokkan], management should proceed accordingly. It is commanded thus. Residents shall know this and abide by it. The aforesaid person, in accordance with the will, is appointed to this shiki. As to the fixed annual tax and other services, these shall be paid in accordance with precedent.
The housemen of this province are to obey Tomomasa, perform the imperial guard service, and in general show their loyalty. For their help in this bloodless coup, an alliance was formed between the Imagawa and the Takeda clans. A number of the major warlords in the Shinano region marched on the border of Kai Provincehoping to neutralize the power of the still-young Shingen before he had a chance to expand into their lands.
However, planning to beat him down at Fuchu where word had it Shingen was gathering his forces for a standthey were unprepared when Takeda forces suddenly came down upon them at the Battle of Sezawa. Taking advantage of their confusion, Shingen was able to win a quick victory, which set the stage for his drive into Shinano lands that same year and his successful Siege of Uehara.
The young warlord made considerable advances into the region, conquering the Suwa headquarters in the Siege of Kuwabara before moving into central Shinano with the defeat of both Tozawa Yorichika and Takato Yoritsugu in the Siege of Fukuyo and Battle of Ankokuji. In he took Uchiyama and won the Battle of Odaihara.
Inhe took Shika. However, the warlord was checked at Uedahara by Murakami Yoshikiyolosing two of his generals in a heated battle which Murakami won. Shingen managed to avenge this loss and the Murakami clan was eventually defeated in the Sieges of Toishi. The feud between them became legendary, and they faced each other on the battlefield five times in the Battles of Kawanakajima.
The conflict between the two that had the fiercest fighting, and might have decided victory or defeat for one side or the other, was the fourth battle, during which the famous tale arose of Uesugi Kenshin 's forces clearing a path through the Takeda troops and Kenshin engaging Shingen in single combat. The tale has Kenshin attacking Shingen with his sword while Shingen defends with his iron war fan or tessen.
Both lords lost many men in this fight, and Shingen in particular lost two of his main generals, Yamamoto Kansuke and his younger brother Takeda Nobushige.
His son was confined to the Toko temple, where he died two years later; it is not known whether his death was natural or ordered by his father. Inhe captured KatsuraoWada, Takashima and Fukuda. In he took FukushimaKannomineMatsuo and Yoshioka. Takeda Shingen then took Kuragano in and Minowa Castle.
- Tokugawa Ieyasu
- DAIMYO, SHOGUNS AND THE BAKUFU (SHOGUNATE)
- Samurai Quotes
He then moved against the Hojo by attacking Hachigata Castle then engaged in the Siege of Odawara Ieyasu's allies were the Date clan, the Mogami clan, the Satake clan and the Maeda clan. Mitsunari allied himself with the three other regents: Ieyasu then led the majority of his army west towards Kyoto. In late summer, Ishida's forces captured Fushimi.
Ieyasu knew that the Kobayakawa clan, led by Kobayakawa Hideaki, was planning to defect from the Ishida side, and that the Mori clan was also thinking of joining his side. Tokugawa stationed 36, of his men, commanded by Tokugawa Hidetada, in Shinano Province to make sure these clans sided with the Tokugawa. It began on October 21, with a total ofmen facing each other, and ended with a complete Tokugawa victory. The Western block was crushed, and over the next few days Ishida Mitsunari and many other western nobles were captured and killed.
Ieyasu was now the de facto ruler of Japan.
Immediately after the victory at Sekigahara, Ieyasu redistributed land to the vassals who had served him. Ieyasu left some western daimyo, such as the Shimazu clan, un-harmed, but others were completely destroyed. Toyotomi Hideyori the son of Hideyoshi was allowed to become a common citizen and for the next ten years he lived a quiet life in Osaka Castle, while Ieyasu ruled Japan. In later years the vassals who had pledged allegiance to Ieyasu before Sekigahara became known as the fudai daimyo, while those who pledged allegiance to him after the battle in other words, after his power was unquestioned were known as tozama daimyo.
Tozama daimyo were considered inferior to fudai daimyo. Ieyasu was 60 years old, and had outlasted the other great lords of his times, Oda NobunagaHideyoshiand Shingen.
He used his remaining years as shogun to create and solidify the Tokugawa shogunate, the third shogunal government after the Minamoto and the Ashikagawhich would rule Japan for the next years. Following a well established Japanese pattern, Ieyasu abdicated his official position as shogun in to his son and heir, Tokugawa Hidetada, but retained power for the rest of his life.
Karel van Wolferen argues that Ieyasu abdicated in order to avoid being tied up in ceremonial duties, and to make it harder for his enemies to attack the real power center.
The cost of the massive construction project, which lasted for the rest of Ieyasu's life, was borne by all the other daimyo. The central donjon, or tenshu, burned in the Meireki fire, and much of the outworks of the castle was destroyed in the Boshin War.
Ieyasu also supervised diplomatic affairs with the Netherlands and Spain. Starting in he began to distance Japan from them, though he gave the Dutch the exclusive rights to a trading post. From until his death, Ieyasu consulted with an English Protestant pilot in Dutch employ, William Adams, who played a role in the formation of the shogun's policy regarding Spain and the Roman Catholic Church.
In Kyoto, Ieyasu ordered the remodeling of the imperial court and buildings, and forced the remaining western daimyo to sign an oath of fealty to him. Inhe composed the Kuge Shohatto, a document which put the court daimyo under strict supervision, requiring their attendance at the shogunal court and restricting the building of castles, leaving them as mere ceremonial figureheads.
InIeyasu, troubled by the influence of Christianity on Japan, signed the Christian Expulsion Edict which banned Christianity, expelled all Christians and foreigners, and banned Christians from practicing their religion. As a result, many Kirishitans early Japanese Christians went underground or fled to the Spanish Philippines. InTokugawa prepared the Buke Shohatto, a document setting out the future of the Tokugawa regime. The last remaining threat to Ieyasu's rule was Hideyori, the son and rightful heir of Hideyoshi.
He was now a young man living in Osaka Castle. Many samurai who opposed Ieyasu rallied around Hideyori, claiming he was the rightful ruler of Japan. Ieyasu used a minor conflict between his samurai and the supporters of Hideyori as pretext to destroy the last of Hideyoshi's family.
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Initially, the Tokugawa forces were repulsed by Hideyori's supporters, but Ieyasu had massive resources. The siege dragged on for more than a year. Eventually, Ieyasu made an agreement involving Hideyori's mother to put an end to the fighting. As soon as the treaty was agreed to, Tokugawa filled Osaka Castle's moats with sand so his troops could go across them. Ignoring the treaty, he again attacked Osaka Castle. Finally in lateOsaka Castle fell and nearly all those defending it were killed, including Hideyori, his mother Hideyoshi's widow, Yodogimiand his infant son.
His wife, Senhime a granddaughter of Ieyasuwas spared. With the Toyotomi finally extinguished, no threats remained to Tokugawa domination of Japan. InIeyasu fell ill and died in his bed, at the age of Character of Ieyasu Handprint of Ieyasu at Kunozan Toshogu Ieyasu had a number of qualities that enabled him to rise to greatness.
He was both careful and bold, depending on the time and place; for example, he wisely avoided Hideyoshi 's disastrous war with Korea. He was calculating and subtle, and several times he switched alliances when he thought doing so would strengthen his position. He allied with Takeda Shingenand then he switched allegiances and was responsible for both Shingen's death and his son's death.
In doing this, he behaved like other Japanese feudal lords during an era of violence, sudden death and betrayal. He was not well-liked or popular, but he was feared and respected for his leadership and his cunning. Ieyasu was capable of loyalty; once he had allied himself with Oda Nobunagahe never went against him, and both leaders profited from their long alliance.
He was known for being loyal to his personal friends and the vassals whom he rewarded, but he also remembered those who had wronged him in the past.
It is said that Ieyasu once executed a man who came into his power because the man had insulted him he was young. Ieyasu protected many former Takeda retainers from the wrath of Oda Nobunagawho was known to harbor a bitter grudge towards the Takeda.
Ieyasu was also known for being heartless. He personally ordered his men to kill Hideyori's infant son, Kunimatsu, and ordered the execution of every soldier who defended Osaka castle. Tens of thousands of samurai are said to have been killed, their heads stuck on planks of wood which lined the road from Kyoto all the way to Fushimi. His lack of compassion was not uncommon for his time and can be attributed to his upbringing amidst wars, assassinations, and continuous violence. In his personal relationships, Ieyasu manifested the same extremes of temperament he showed towards strangers.
He had 19 wives and concubines, by whom he had 11 sons and five daughters. The two without surnames died before adulthood. He is said to have cared for his children and grandchildren, establishing three of them, Yorinobu, Yoshinao, and Yorifusa as the daimyo of Kii, Owari, and Mito provinces, respectively.The Shogunate: History of Japan
However, he could be ruthless when crossed; he ordered the executions of his first wife and his eldest son.