Education and its relationship to home economics livelihood

Why study home economics? / Rationale / Health and physical education / Home - Senior Secondary

education and its relationship to home economics livelihood

searching for home economics curriculum found the following related articles and degree levels and can lead to careers in teaching and human services. Home economics, domestic science or home science is a field of study that deals with the In addition, home economics has a strong historic relationship to the field of human ecology, and since the s a number of university-level They came from a very religious family that valued education especially for women. The. The field deals with the relationship between individuals, families, and communities AIMS OF HOME ECONOMICS AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION The Home.

They question the continuing dominance of scientific reasoning; encourage examination of the field's purposes, assumptions and questions; and urge it to renew its focus on enabling families themselves to foster the development of healthy, responsible, capable and compassionate individuals.

  • Why study home economics?

Brown and Paolucci also argued that individuals and families should reflectively participate in the critique and formulation of social goals and means of accomplishing them. This requires increased critical thinking and moral reasoning; theoretical and interdisciplinary work; evaluation of existing social practices, norms, and assumptions; and emancipation from ignorance and distorted views resulting from such things as prejudice, trauma, repression, oppression, and useless conventions.

Critical science emphasizes political-moral action. International Contributions Over the years, home economists in other countries have contributed significantly to strengthening programs aimed at women, families, and children O'Toole and Nelsonand to formally and informally educating women, increasing understanding and appreciation of other cultures, improving public healthand improving the process of introducing change O'Toole et al.

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Home economists in the United States began to become involved outside their country at the start of the twentieth century when mission boards hired graduates to assist in establishing home economics departments in schools and colleges in other countries to improve the living conditions of the people with whom the missionaries worked O'Toole and Nelson Several professional organizations also have facilitated international involvement.

The IFHE is the only international nongovernmental professional organization concerned with home economics as a whole. Founded in in Friburg, Switzerland, IFHE brings together institutions, organizations, associations, and individuals from more than countries worldwide to further the mission of home economics.

IFHE also cooperates with other international nongovernmental organizations related to home economics to strengthen and promote home economics concerns and exchange information Davis This European professional work influenced the early development of home economics in the United States, discouraging emphasis on mere techniques and increasing attention to the thought patterns involved in education for family life.

The AHEA published a steady stream of articles in its journals and multiple nonserial publications; it has also adopted almost twenty resolutions on international topics resulting from its members' international work. The association sent teachers to China into Europe for home economics teacher exchanges after World War Iand to Turkey in to facilitate university program development. By more than home economists were serving overseas Davis Work of home economists from the United States with international visitors and students here and abroad has clearly had an impact on families bilaterally.

Recipients have come from a wide variety of countries to study in various institutions, and many returned home to take leadership positions. It has cooperated with other association sections and divisions, producing publications, working with many other national and international organizations, and facilitating contacts for members wanting to be internationally involved Davis Other efforts included the Inter-American Commission on Women and foreign government collaborations.

education and its relationship to home economics livelihood

The necessity of developing U. In it, home economists developed country profiles on daily life in thirteen countries to teach thousands of students, members, and adult education program participants more about the world.

education and its relationship to home economics livelihood

In the s and s the demand for professionals overseas with multi- and bilateral agencies declined, but educational institution study and research opportunities grew Davis They sponsored conferences funded through U. The early government aid programs influenced the education, role, and status of women in other countries and helped to create an awareness of the meaning of home economics and its value to individuals and families.

The Pan American Union renamed The Organization of American States in opened opportunities between the s and s for extension home economists to help rural families train local leaders O'Toole and Nelson In the s, U.

Home economists continue to participate in Fulbright programs. After a shift in U. The strength and vitality of home economics varies worldwide. In Asia, it is strong in higher education. To develop an appreciation of what is truly Filipino by using indigenous materials in their projects.

Topics taught in this subject include the following: The definition of marriage varies according to different cultures, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually sexual, are acknowledged. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity. When defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal.

In article in Man, Leach argued that no one definition of marriage applied to all cultures. He offered a list of ten rights associated with marriage, including sexual monopoly and rights with respect to children, with specific rights differing across cultures. Those rights, according to Leach, included: To establish a legal mother of a man's children. To give the husband a monopoly in the wife's sexuality. To give the wife a monopoly in the husband's sexuality. To give the husband partial or monopolistic rights to the wife's domestic and other labour services.


To give the wife partial or monopolistic rights to the husband's domestic and other labour services. To give the husband partial or total control over property belonging or potentially accruing to the wife.

To give the wife partial or total control over property belonging or potentially accruing to the husband. To establish a joint fund of property — a partnership — for the benefit of the children of the marriage.

To establish a socially significant 'relationship of affinity' between the husband and his wife's brothers.

education and its relationship to home economics livelihood

Anthropologist Jack Goody's comparative study of marriage around the world utilizing the Ethnographic Atlas found a strong correlation between intensive plough agriculture, dowry and monogamy. This pattern was found in a broad swath of Eurasian societies from Japan to Ireland. The majority of Sub-Saharan African societies that practice extensive hoe agriculture, in contrast, show a correlation between "Bride price," and polygamy.

A further study drawing on the Ethnographic Atlas showed a statistical correlation between increasing size of the society, the belief in "high gods" to support human morality, and monogamy. In the countries which do not permit polygamy, a person who marries in one of those countries a person while still being lawfully married to another commits the crime of bigamy. In all cases, the second marriage is considered legally null and void. Besides the second and subsequent marriages being void, the bigamist is also liable to other penalties, which also vary between jurisdictions.

education and its relationship to home economics livelihood

When a man is married to more than one wife at a time, the relationship is called polygyny, and there is no marriage bond between the wives; and when a woman is married to more than one husband at a time, it is called polyandry, and there is no marriage bond between the husbands. If a marriage includes multiple husbands and wives, it can be called group marriage. A molecular genetics study of global human genetic diversity argued that sexual polygyny was typical of human reproductive patterns until the shift to sedentary farming communities approximately 10, to 5, years ago in Europe and Asia, and more recently in Africa and the AmericasMarriages are classified according to the number of legal spouses an individual has.

The suffix "-gamy" refers specifically to the number of spouses, as in bi-gamy two spouses, generally illegal in most nationsand poly- gamy more than one spouse. One type of de facto polygyny is concubinage, where only one women get the wife right and status, while other women remain legal house mistresses.

Although a society may be classified as polygynous, not all marriages in it necessarily are; monogamous marriages may in fact predominate.

It is to this flexibility that Anthropologist Robin Fox attributes its success as a social support system: To correct this condition, females had to be killed at birth, remain single, become prostitutes, or be siphoned off into celibate religious orders. Polygynous systems have the advantage that they can promise, as did the Mormons, a home and family for every woman.

More recent studies have found 53 societies outside the 28 found in the Himalayans which practice polyandry. It is most common in egalitarian societies marked by high male mortality or male absenteeism.

It is associated with partible paternity, the cultural belief that a child can have more than one father. The explanation for polyandry in the Himalayan Mountains is related to the scarcity of land; the marriage of all brothers in a family to the same wife fraternal polyandry allows family land to remain intact and undivided. If every brother married separately and had children, family land would be split into unsustainable small plots.

In Europe, this was prevented through the social practice of impartible inheritance the dis-inheriting of most siblings, some of whom went on to become celibate monks and priests. These may include, depending on jurisdiction: Establishing the second legal guardian of a parent's child. Establishing a joint fund of property for the benefit of children. Establishing a relationship between the families of the spouses.

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It can be a form of courtship consisting of social activities done by the couple. The protocols and practices of dating, and the terms used to describe it, vary considerably from country to country and over time. With the use of modern technology, people can date via telephone or computer or meet in person.

education and its relationship to home economics livelihood

During this period, a couple is said to be betrothed, "intended", affianced, engaged to be married, or simply engaged. The duration of the courtship varies vastly, and is largely dependent on cultural norms or upon the agreement of the parties involved.

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Long engagements were once common in formal arranged marriages, and it was not uncommon for parents betrothing children to arrange marriages many years before the engaged couple were old enough. Because "family" is included in the concept's name, consideration of a couple's desire to bear children, in the context of a family unit, is often considered primarily.

Contemporary notions of family planning, however, tend to place a woman and her childbearing decisions at the center of the discussion, as notions of women's empowerment and reproductive autonomy have gained traction in many parts of the world.

Family planning may involve consideration of the number of children a woman wishes to have, including the choice to have no children, as well as the age at which she wishes to have them.

These matters are obviously influenced by external factors such as marital situation, career considerations, financial position, any disabilities that may affect their ability to have children and raise them, besides many other considerations. If sexually active, family planning may involve the use of contraception and other techniques to control the timing of reproduction.