In phylogeny as in ontogeny, the association cortex of the frontal lobe, also of cognitive functions that neuropsychological studies in animals and humans have ascribed to this cortex. ventionally defined by two basic criteria: cytoarchitec-. Abstract We examined the relations between cognitive function and .. a possible interpretation is that the frontal lobe function and the global. From: Neural Circuit Development and Function in the Brain, Related terms : function (EF) is exceedingly broad, and there is little consensus on a definition . ) has long focused on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but this traditional view . Executive function encompasses cognitive processes, including memory.
Primarily derived from work examining behavioral inhibition, it views executive functions as composed of four main abilities. A second component is the management of emotional responses in order to achieve goal-directed behaviors. Thirdly, internalization of self-directed speech is used to control and sustain rule-governed behavior and to generate plans for problem-solving.
Lastly, information is analyzed and synthesized into new behavioral responses to meet one's goals.
Changing one's behavioral response to meet a new goal or modify an objective is a higher level skill that requires a fusion of executive functions including self-regulation, and accessing prior knowledge and experiences. According to this model, the executive system of the human brain provides for the cross-temporal organization of behavior towards goals and the future and coordinates actions and strategies for everyday goal-directed tasks. Essentially, this system permits humans to self-regulate their behavior so as to sustain action and problem solving toward goals specifically and the future more generally.
Thus, executive function deficits pose serious problems for a person's ability to engage in self-regulation over time to attain their goals and anticipate and prepare for the future. While this model may broadly appeal to clinicians and researchers to help identify and assess certain executive functioning components, it lacks a distinct theoretical basis and relatively few attempts at validation.
We assume that the PFC serves a specific function in cognitive control: They provide bias signals throughout much of the rest of the brain, affecting not only visual processes but also other sensory modalities, as well as systems responsible for response execution, memory retrieval, emotional evaluation, etc.
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The aggregate effect of these bias signals is to guide the flow of neural activity along pathways that establish the proper mappings between inputs, internal states, and outputs needed to perform a given task.
Miller and Cohen draw explicitly upon an earlier theory of visual attention that conceptualises perception of visual scenes in terms of competition among multiple representations — such as colors, individuals, or objects.
For example, imagine that you are waiting at a busy train station for a friend who is wearing a red coat. You are able to selectively narrow the focus of your attention to search for red objects, in the hope of identifying your friend.
Desimone and Duncan argue that the brain achieves this by selectively increasing the gain of neurons responsive to the color red, such that output from these neurons is more likely to reach a downstream processing stageand, as a consequence, to guide behaviour. According to Miller and Cohen, this selective attention mechanism is in fact just a special case of cognitive control — one in which the biasing occurs in the sensory domain. According to Miller and Cohen's model, the PFC can exert control over input sensory or output response neuronsas well as over assemblies involved in memoryor emotion.
Cognitive control is mediated by reciprocal PFC connectivity with the sensory and motor corticesand with the limbic system.
Within their approach, thus, the term 'cognitive control' is applied to any situation where a biasing signal is used to promote task-appropriate responding, and control thus becomes a crucial component of a wide range of psychological constructs such as selective attentionerror monitoring, decision-makingmemory inhibitionand response inhibition.
Miyake and Friedman's model[ edit ] Miyake and Friedman's theory of executive functions proposes that there are three aspects of executive functions: In other words, aspects of updating, inhibition, and shifting are related, yet each remains a distinct entity. First, updating is defined as the continuous monitoring and quick addition or deletion of contents within one's working memory.
Second, inhibition is one's capacity to supersede responses that are prepotent in a given situation. Third, shifting is one's cognitive flexibility to switch between different tasks or mental states. Miyake and Friedman also suggest that the current body of research in executive functions suggest four general conclusions about these skills.
The first conclusion is the unity and diversity aspects of executive functions. The posterior DLPFC creates an appropriate attentional set, or rules for the brain to accomplish the current goal. For the Stroop task, this involves activating the areas of the brain involved in color perception, and not those involved in word comprehension.
Frontal lobe and cognitive development.
It counteracts biases and irrelevant information, like the fact that the semantic perception of the word is more salient to most people than the color in which it is printed. The task-relevant information must be separated from other sources of information in the task. In the example, this means focusing on the ink color and not the word.
The posterior dorsal anterior cingulate cortex ACC is next in the cascade, and it is responsible for response selection. This is where the decision is made whether you will say green the written word and the incorrect answer or red the font color and correct answer. Following the response, the anterior dorsal ACC is involved in response evaluation, deciding whether you were correct or incorrect. Activity in this region increases when the probability of an error is higher.
The activity of any of the areas involved in this model depends on the efficiency of the areas that came before it. For example, someone who is feeling happy would not smile, and the voice would be devoid of emotion. Along the same lines, though, the person may also exhibit excessive, unwarranted displays of emotion.
Depression is common in stroke patients. Also common is a loss of or decrease in motivation. Someone might not want to carry out normal daily activities and would not feel "up to it".
Frontal lobe - Wikipedia
The frontal lobe is the same part of the brain that is responsible for executive functions such as planning for the future, judgment, decision-making skills, attention spanand inhibition. These functions can decrease drastically in someone whose frontal lobe is damaged.
Confabulation may be the most frequently indicated "less common" effect. In the case of confabulation, someone gives false information while maintaining the belief that it is the truth. In a small number of patients, uncharacteristic cheerfulness can be noted. This effect is seen mostly in patients with lesions to the right frontal portion of the brain. Similarly, those who experience Capgras syndrome after frontal lobe damage believe that an identical "replacement" has taken the identity of a close friend, relative, or other person and is posing as that person.
This last effect is seen mostly in schizophrenic patients who also have a neurological disorder in the frontal lobe.What Does the Brain's Frontal Cortex Do? (Professor Robert Sapolsky Explains)
During agingDNA damage is markedly increased in the promoters of the genes displaying reduced expression in the frontal cortex. In cultured human neurons, these promoters are selectively damaged by oxidative stress.
A frontal lobotomy sometimes called frontal leucotomy successfully reduced distress but at the cost of often blunting the subject's emotions, volition and personality.