Social Class and Children's Help-Seeking in Elementary School. Mobility: Cultural Capital, Symbolic Violence and Implications for Family Relationships. 31 MOMENTS OF SOCIAL INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION Race, Class, and Cultural Capital in Family–School Relationships ANNETTE LAREAU AND ERIN . Annette Patricia Lareau (born ) is a sociologist working at the University of Pennsylvania. She is a graduate of U.C. Santa Cruz and earned her PhD in.
From all her observations and analysis, Lareau concludes that the different types of childrearing have more to do with class than race. Through her research she has found that the childrearing ways of the middle class perpetuate inequality because of the advantages that the children have through participation in extracurricular activities, engagement in critical thinking and problem solving.
These practices of more parental involvement are what perpetuate inequalities from one generation to the next. Lareau stresses the importance of parents being involved in their children's lives and talks about how middle class children benefit from having a sense of entitlement and the practice of gaining access to scarce resources.
She also stresses the importance of literacy as a huge factor in a child's success. Data collection process[ edit ] In — she observed white and black children from two third grade classrooms in a small Midwestern town, Lawrenceville, and interviewed the mothers, fathers, and guardians of the children as well as the school professionals working with the children.
Then in — she received a grant from the Spencer Foundation to study a third grade classroom in Lower Richmond, an urban school district.
In order to do this, she hired and trained 5 research assistants inwho would carry out in-depth interviews with the families. Lareau and her research team studied 88 African-American and white families and later chose 12 of the 88 families for more intensive visits.
During the study, they visited the 12 families 20 times each, roughly two to three hours at a time, and accompanied them on various outings and appointments.
Lareau conducted about one-half of the interviews; she did many family visits. Lareau wrote the first draft of her book Unequal Childhoods completed the first edition of the book by Unequal Childhood was discussed by Malcolm Gladwell in his book Outliers.
A second edition of Unequal Childhoods was published in Lareau added over pages. She traced the lives of the 12 children whose families were observed into adulthood. With Elliot Weininger and Dalton Conley, she also reported national data on children's participation in organized activities which affirmed the findings of her ethnographic study.
The book was published by the Russell Sage Foundation. The book reports on the results of a number of studies of how residential decisions facilitate the maintenance of social inequality.
On the book back cover, Sean ReardonProfessor of Sociology and Education at Stanford University termed the book "a 'must-read' for urban sociologists and educational policy makers interested in understanding modern American inequality, segregation, and educational opportunity".
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, I have looked at students who categorize themselves as white, black, Asian, or Hispanic. Using the statistical program SPSS, I then used the factors of reading scores, socioeconomic status, parental involvement with education, and parental engagement with schools to look at the effects of social and cultural capital among groups.
I further adjusted the findings for the effects of the combined factors of socioeconomic status, parental involvement in education, and parental engagement with schools. The results show that social and cultural capital does have an effect on the educational achievement of non-mainstream students in the United States.
This information will be useful to educators and policy makers concerned with this subject. We want this not only for his sake — but for the nation's sake. Nothing matters more to the future of our country: Johnson, special message to the Congress Social scientists have been concerned with educational problems faced by non- mainstream students — lower socioeconomic class, minorities, and immigrant children — since the beginning of the twentieth century Gibson and Ogbu Foremost anthropologists and sociologists of every generation since then have documented the schooling experiences of these children.
This research has led to efforts to improve the school success of these children.
Social class differences in family-school relationships: The importance of cultural capital
Being a minority student has been correlated with unequal educational opportunity and high rates of failure in schools. A growing concern has been low scholastic achievement among minority groups in the United States, and consequent exclusion from higher education and employment opportunities Frederickson and Petrides Recent research has also indicated that there may be significant differences in the patterns of adaptation and school adjustment between immigrant and non-immigrant minorities.
These issues will be addressed within the framework of the theories of cultural capital and social capital. Cultural capital can be stated in three forms: This paper addresses the effects of racial and ethnic affiliation of the child and socioeconomic status of the family upon the educational success of the minority student. In addition, the factors of parental involvement with the child's education both at home and with the school will be included in the research data.
Using these theories, this paper analyzes the effects of available capital upon the scholastic success of minority students. Specifically, it endeavors to determine which types of available capital contribute most to the students' accomplishment in school, and the absence of which factors are most detrimental to their success. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study are used for this study. While previous research has addressed the educational and social factors related to scholastic achievement for various minority groups, little attention has been paid to comparing and contrasting data for each group to find the most common factors.
This research attempts to combine the information from these studies and evaluate the factors which generate the greatest scholastic success consistently for all groups. In this manner, the educational system can focus on obtaining educational equality and a greater degree of scholastic success for all children. Bourdieu's theory stated that individuals who are located in diverse social settings and have dissimilar background experiences will become socialized differently from each other Cookson Particularly relevant to the discussion of social capital and education are the three types of social capital discussed by Coleman ; obligations and expectations, information channels, and social norms.
Coleman also states that most sociologists hold the view that individuals are guided by social rules, norms, and obligations; this serves as a framework to explain actions within a social context and also make clear the ways in which these actions are formed by that social context. The structure of these backgrounds also serves to form the amounts and types of resources which individuals are able to draw upon throughout their lives Cookson Differences in the types of social capital were seen when studied across racial and ethnic groups Pong, Hao, and Gardner The concept of cultural capital was first developed by Pierre Bourdieu and Jean-Claude Passeron to explain the force of culture on class systems and the connection between social action and social structure.
Cultural capital is important in understanding the process by which social stratification is sustained Lamont and Lareau Most of the studies in the past have focused on educational outcomes due to family factors, but more recent work has begun to focus on the process through which these outcomes are created.
Although factors such as the curriculum, classroom settings, and the relationships between student and teachers have been studied, the relationship of parental involvement to achievement has not been investigated as much Lareau Lareau posits that cultural factors relating to social class influence the parents' participation in their children's education.
A link between parents' relationship to teachers and administrators was also seen; parents who formed partnerships with the schools offered an advantage to their children's achievement, while children whose parents put the responsibility for education entirely on the school were negatively affected.
Annette Lareau - Wikipedia
Lareau's comparison of two schools — one middle-class and one working class — showed a marked difference in parents' responses to teachers' request for parental contribution Lareau Parents in middle-class families have a tendency to aggressively schedule and assess their children's learning, making deliberate efforts to encourage and stimulate their growth and development.
The working-class parents are more inclined to allow their children to develop naturally and spontaneously, while providing basic support for their endeavors Lareau as cited in Cookson This shows the relationship between families and schools as either independent in the working-class school or dependent in the middle-class school. A mixture of reasons was given for the ways in which parents contributed to their children's education. Both groups of parents shared the same educational ideals; it was their way of encouraging education that differed.
The level of involvement demonstrated by the parents is shown to be linked to the level of social and cultural resources held by the families. Family background and capital can be separated into three general types of capital Coleman Financial capital is defined as the amount of income or wealth which the family possesses. Human capital, in this context, is the amount of education of the parents, which can serve as a learning resource for the children.
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Social capital within the family is different from social capital within the community. Social capital within the family is the amount of time spent in interactions between parent and child, the effort which the parent makes to encourage learning abilities of the child Coleman Therefore, if the human capital of the parents is not shared with the children in the context of family social capital, it is immaterial to the educational achievement of the children.
Most of the research addressing the effect of parenting styles on school achievement has either focused on white students or all minority groups combined into a single group.
Pong, Hao, and Gardner conducted a study which concentrated on only two ethnic groups, Hispanics and Asians. They found that parenting styles vary between racial and ethnic groups.
And although there were evident differences in social capital in different racial and ethnic groups, these differences did not necessarily indicate outcomes in scholastic achievement for those students. Hispanics were at an economic disadvantage compared to white students, and were also less likely to have well educated parents and both parents present in the home.
In contrast, Asians were more likely to have well educated parents and higher family incomes Pong, et al. Notably, lack of family social capital seems to increase drop-out rates among teenagers. The number of siblings of a student can also be a factor in achievement.
Parental attention which is diffused among multiple children is not as favorable for each child's achievement levels, but some compensation is seen by the effect of the mother's expectations for higher education for the student Coleman When parents shared the decision making in matters regarding the students' daily life with the children, an increase in school success was shown.
Increased communication about school events was also seen to have positive affects Pong et al. Social capital outside the family and within the school environment can be described by parental involvement in school organizations. These may include such groups as parent teacher associations PTA and booster groups. Involvement in organizations of this kind help to build and strengthen relationships between parents and teachers, as well as with other adults involved with the school.
Positive relationships of this nature produce additional social capital for the child Pong et al. In addition, all foreign born parents, regardless of ethnicity, were shown to have more elevated expectations regarding their children's achievement than do native born white parents in the United States.
Teaching Methods In the realm of psychological research, evidence suggests that stereotype threat may also have an effect upon scholastic achievement and test scores. Stereotypes regarding certain groups and their inherent abilities to perform academically can have a negative effect upon those groups, especially among members who identify most strongly with that group.
- Annotation from the Connection Collection
- Annette Lareau
Although the absence of measurement bias is essential to testing, the psychological expectations of the individuals being tested can affect the outcome of the scoring.
If an individual expects to do well because of common stereotypes regarding their particular social class or other group, they often perform better. Conversely, if the stereotype for that group is seen as low achievement, individuals may perform less well because of the attitude with which they approach the test Wicherts, Dolan and Hessen Hypothesis This study adds to the existing literature regarding family and social capital in contributing to educational achievement of minority students.