12 reasons you’ll never look at history the same way again
Francis II was a King of France from to He was also King consort of Scotland as a Mary had been crowned Queen of Scots in Stirling Castle on 9 September at the age of Foreign relations · Government · Human rights. The story of the three husbands of Mary Queen of Scots: Francis II of France, Bothwell or agreed to consummate her relationship with him (accounts vary) and . Mary wedded Francis, Dauphin of France on April 24th, Francis II (age 15) with his wife Mary, Queen of Scots (age 17) in Mary became Queen of .
Anne de Montmorency remained tied to power. As soon as the day after the death of the king, he was present at the council meeting and was also at the coronation. Later he supported the repression of the Amboise conspiracy ofnotably by going to the Parlement of Paris to communicate to its members the measures taken by the king. In July he came back to court and to the council, although in a much less flamboyant manner than before. Domestic policy[ edit ] Catholic-Protestant religious strife[ edit ] The reign of Francis II was dominated by religious crisis.
Due to growing discontent, the government tried conciliation. Under the influence of Catherine de' Medici, it started a dialogue with the proponents of this relatively new movement, while remaining implacable towards agitators.
Until the end of his reign, the French kingdom was paralysed by local revolts. He reacted by becoming more authoritarian. From the beginning of their regency, the Guises faced deep discontent throughout the kingdom. The opposition was led by two Princes of the Blood who contested their power and their decisions as rulers. The Guises were seen by many as lacking legitimacy. To their adversaries, they were merely ambitious foreigners from Lorraine.
However, Antoine failed to prevail against the Guises when he came to court. The political decisions of the government were also contested. The Guises faced a disastrous financial situation. After decades of wars against the House of Habsburgthe public debt stood at 48 million livreswhile the king had only 12 million livres in annual income. The Guises implemented a policy of austerity intended to improve the country's financial situation, but this contributed mightily to their unpopularity.
They reduced the size of the army, and many soldiers became unemployed. Frustrations mounted at court, as the cutbacks spared the regiments under the control of the Guises and their friends. The autumn of saw a wave of house searches, arrests, and asset forfeitures.
Amboise conspiracy The execution of the conspirators. Engraving by Jacques Tortorel and Jean Perrissin, — Determined to stop the persecution and have Protestantism officially recognised, a group of noblemen planned the Amboise conspiracy to overthrow the government and give power to the Princes of the Blood, who supported the new religion.
The conspirators planned to take over the palace with the help of the royal guard, abduct the king, then eliminate the Guises if they offered any resistance. A substantial external military deployment was intended to secure the operation. During Februarythe court received multiple warnings about the conspiracy. Due to that threat, the royal council decided, under the influence of Queen Catherine de' Medici, to make some concessions.
On 8 Marchthe king signed an edict granting general amnesty to Protestants. The poorly organized conspiracy ended in a bloodbath. Its outcome was determined as early as 15 March when Jacques, Duke of Nemoursarrested some of the primary conspirators. Over the following days disorientated troops, mostly peasants, were arrested one by one in and around the forest of Amboise. The king was at first inclined to leniency. He freed them and ordered them to return to their homes. But on 17 March, two hundred men tried to storm one of the city gates at the foot of the castle.Francis & Mary [Frary] ǁ The Story of King & Queen
Quickly repelled by the Duke of Guise, these rebels were unmercifully pursued. More than a hundred were executed, some even hanged from the ramparts of the castle. The retaliation continued for several weeks, and almost twelve hundred people died. He had arrived at court during the uprising and helped to defend the castle.
Interrogation of prisoners clearly placed him as the conspiracy's beneficiary, but the word of commoners did not count against that of a Prince of the Blood.
WI Mary Stuart was pregnant with Francis's II child? | Alternate History Discussion
Irrefutable written proof was needed to accuse him. Public assemblies were still prohibited, but the government released all religious prisoners. This was the first easing of religious persecution since the reign of Henry II.
The government was then dominated by "averagers", humanists convinced that reconciliation among Christians was possible, based on reciprocal concessions.
An ecumenical council for the church of France was officially proposed: The Pope opposed this. Even though they did not want to split from Rome, the Pope's opposition led them to threaten a national council if he did not agree. A gathering of the Estates General was suggested, but, fearing that they would be evicted due to their unpopularity, the Guises strongly opposed this.
Under pressure from the Queen Mother, the Guises agreed to consult with the notables: The Princes of the Blood and the Constable were asked to attend and to resume their roles in the king's council.
The assembly closed by convening the Estates General. Highly critical of the Pope, the Assembly of Notables also decided to gather France's bishops to obtain their consent for a national council. Afraid to see gallicanism slip out of his control, the Pope eventually agreed to a general council, but rejected the attendance of any Protestant, as demanded by the French government.
Countryside revolt[ edit ] The government's conciliation policy was intended to ease tensions, but had the opposite effect. Encouraged by the government's leniency, Protestants continued to congregate for religious services.
Although law officials intervened to disperse them and to imprison the organizers, the growing numbers of participants, which sometimes exceeded a thousand, made it impossible to accomplish this for lack of resources. Some were even won over to the new religion. In some places Protestants challenged royal authority with riots and armed rebellions. The unrest that had started sporadically during the Amboise conspiracy spread over the summer throughout the kingdom.
On 1 Julywhen Mary was six months old, the Treaty of Greenwich was signed, which promised that at the age of ten Mary would marry Edward and move to England, where Henry could oversee her upbringing.
- Mary, Queen of Scots has a Valois Child
- Who were the husbands of Mary Queen of Scots?
- WI Mary Stuart was pregnant with Francis's II child?
Regent Arran resisted the move, but backed down when Beaton's armed supporters gathered at Linlithgow. The arrests caused anger in Scotland, and Arran joined Beaton and became a Catholic. English forces mounted a series of raids on Scottish and French territory. Mary's guardians, fearful for her safety, sent her to Inchmahome Priory for no more than three weeks, and turned to the French for help. On the promise of French military help, and a French dukedom for himself, Arran agreed to the marriage.
In June, the much awaited French help arrived at Leith to besiege and ultimately take Haddington. On 7 Julya Scottish Parliament held at a nunnery near the town agreed to a French marriage treaty. BeatonSetonFlemingand Livingston. Mary and Francis in Catherine de' Medici 's book of hoursc.
She was considered a pretty child and later, as a woman, strikingly attractive.
Henry commented that "from the very first day they met, my son and she got on as well together as if they had known each other for a long time". Under the terms of the Treaty of Edinburghsigned by Mary's representatives on 6 JulyFrance and England undertook to withdraw troops from Scotland and France recognised Elizabeth's right to rule England. However, the seventeen-year-old Mary, still in France and grieving for her mother, refused to ratify the treaty. King Francis II died on 5 Decemberof a middle ear infection that led to an abscess in his brain.
Only four of the councillors were Catholic: Even the one significant later addition to the council, Lord Ruthven in Decemberwas another Protestant whom Mary personally disliked. She joined with Lord Moray in the destruction of Scotland's leading Catholic magnate, Lord Huntly, in after he led a rebellion in the Highlands against her. Elizabeth refused to name a potential heir, fearing that to do so would invite conspiracy to displace her with the nominated successor.
However, when her uncle, the Cardinal of Lorrainebegan negotiations with Archduke Charles of Austria without her consent, she angrily objected and the negotiations foundered. Mary was horrified and banished him from Scotland. He ignored the edict, and two days later he forced his way into her chamber as she was about to disrobe.
She reacted with fury and fear, and when Moray rushed into the room, in reaction to her cries for help, she shouted, "Thrust your dagger into the villain! Chastelard was tried for treason, and beheaded.