BBC - History - Mary, Queen of Scots, and her lover
Mary wedded Francis, Dauphin of France on April 24th, At the time of their marriage in , when she was fifteen and he was twelve, Did Mary, Queen of Scots spend any time with her baby son James before she. She is one of the most legendary royals of all time but Mary Queen in and Mary and Francis married when Mary was just 15 years old.
Although Mary was six months pregnant at the time, she survived the shocking ordeal and Prince James was born on 19 June Mary's abhorrence and contempt for Darnley was accompanied by a growing affection for James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell c.
On 12 April however, a mock-trial acquitted Bothwell and on 24 April he abducted the Queen, perhaps with her approval and certainly without much resistance from her, and carried her to Dunbar.
Bothwell then obtained a divorce from his recently married wife on 7 May, received a public pardon on 12 May from Mary for her seizure and was created Duke of Orkney, and then was married to the Queen on 15 May It was at this point that Mary was faced with a confederacy of nobles who stood against her and she surrendered at Carberry on 15 June Imprisoned on an island castle in Loch Leven, Mary was compelled to abdicate in favour of her infant son.
She was now aged twenty-four. After escaping from Loch Leven on 2 Mayand in spite of receiving much support and massing an army of six thousand, she was defeated by the Regent, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, at Langside on 13 May Mary then crossed the Solway into England and sought the help of Elizabeth I only to remain under house arrest - a prisoner - for just over twenty years - variously at Carlisle, Bolton, Tutbury, Wingfield, Coventry, Chatsworth, Sheffield, Buxton, and Chartley.
In England she became the focus of plots by English Catholics and foreign agents. Through the efforts of Sir Francis Walsingham and his state security system, the Babington Plot against Elizabeth was revealed, implicating Mary who was then housed at Chartley in Staffordshire. She was brought to trial in Septembera sentence of death was passed in Octoberand with the consent of Elizabeth she was executed at Fotheringay Castle on 8 February Conditions Governing Access Generally open for consultation to bona fide researchers, but please contact repository for details in advance.
Moreover, Elizabeth was troubled by her own conception of the divine nature of a monarch and upset by the implications of a forcible removal of a legitimate ruler. To resolve the dilemma, Elizabeth decided, in effect, to sit in judgment on the case. A commission met at York in the summer of and terminated its proceedings at Hampton Court early the following year.
Elizabeth did not allow the commission to make a definite judgment on the issue of Mary's complicity in the murder of Darnley, but two results emerged from the hearing: Catholic Plots Mary had arrived in England as a refugee seeking aid; she was to remain there the rest of her life as a virtual prisoner.
Early in she was moved to Tutbury in Staffordshire to begin her captivity. Quickly she became the center of Catholic plots. Complicated plotting involving the proposed marriage of Mary to the Duke of Norfolk established her connection with the discontented English Catholics. The northern earls rebelled in but were quickly put down, Mary being moved south out of harm's way.
In March Mary was involved in the Ridolphi plot, by which the Catholics were to rise in revolt and place Mary on the throne at the same time as a Spanish expeditionary force landed.
The details of the plot were discovered by the government; Norfolk was arrested, tried, and executed. The implication of Mary in the plot was undoubted; she and her agent, the bishop of Ross, had been at the center of it. There were petitions from both houses of Parliament that action be taken against her, but Elizabeth opposed such measures. Such was the pattern of the remaining 14 years of her life.
Mary was closely watched by the authorities, but she continued to conspire with her Catholic friends to escape and take the English throne. Plot after plot followed in the main the course of the Ridolphi scheme. In some Mary played a direct part; in others she was simply the cause for which the rebels gathered.
Mary Queen Of Scots | dubaiairporthotel.info
In Secretary Walsingham uncovered the details of the Babington plot; in July he secured a letter from Mary, giving her assent to the assassination of Elizabeth.
Elizabeth could not reject this evidence, and orders were given for Mary's trial. She was formally condemned on October Parliament petitioned for Mary's execution; after much delay and uncertainty, Elizabeth signed the death warrant. The Council, acting on its own initiative because the Queen still hesitated, sent the warrant to Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, where Mary was executed on Feb. Elizabeth displayed great public displeasure at the action and even sent the bearer of the warrant, William Davison, to the Tower.
But realistically she knew that the action was necessary; by the death of Mary, the center of dangerous Catholic plotting was removed, and since the new Catholic claimant was the Infanta of Spain, fears of a popular rising on behalf of the Catholic cause were sharply diminished.
A recent major study is Antonia Fraser, Mary Queen of Scotswhich has an excellent bibliography.
- Mary, Queen of Scots, and the Earl of Bothwell
- Mary Queen of Scots: 13 facts about her fascinating life and grisly death
- Mary Queen of Scots
But the recent discovery of secret reports from Thomas Randolph, the English Ambassador to the Scottish Court, indicates a much earlier intimacy. In Octoberfor example, he reported that Bothwell was 'near sybbe unto her grace', which means they were close friends though not necessarily lovers.
Moray resented Bothwell's influence and took advantage of his feud with the Earl of Arran to imprison him in Bothwell escaped and fled to France, at which point Moray persuaded Mary to put down a supposed rebellion by Bothwell's friend, the Earl of Huntly, in the Catholic north-west of Scotland. Because she was determined to succeed Elizabeth I as Queen of England. Moray had promised her that if she crushed the Huntly rebellion Elizabeth would look favourably on her claim - and she believed him.
But even with Huntly dead, Elizabeth refused to meet her. Mary had trusted her older half-brother, but he had simply used her to destroy a personal enemy and, in the process, further the Protestant cause. It was a turning point; Mary no longer trusted Moray and the Protestant lords and now turned, or returned, to the Catholic ticket. It is generally believed that Bothwell was absent from Scotland during the crucial next two years when Mary began to take matters into her own hands.
But Randolph's reports point unexpectedly to Bothwell's continuing influence. The upshot of meetings such as this one was that Mary chose Henry, Lord Darnley, as her new husband.
Collection of papers relating to Mary, Queen of Scots () - Archives Hub
By marrying Darnley, Mary hoped to strengthen the Catholic cause and enhance her claim to the English throne. The wedding took place at the Chapel Royal at Holyrood on 29 JulyMary wearing black, as befitted a widow.
Moray and some of the Protestant lords rebelled in protest, but were eventually driven into England by royal troops led by the Earls of Lennox and Bothwell, the latter having been recalled from France for the occasion.
Bothwell was now at the height of his powers, a leading member of Mary's new - and largely Catholic - council. The only fly in the ointment was Darnley. He spent little time with the Queen and even less on the affairs of state, preferring to hunt, hawk, drink and keep low company.
Gradually the Queen fell out of love. But Darnley had done one thing right: Top Alone and defenceless The remaining Protestant lords saw Darnley as the weak link. They told him that Mary's Italian secretary, a former musician named David Rizzio, had too much influence at court. Because he was Mary's lover. The jealous and gullible Darnley believed them, and agreed to take part in Rizzio's murder. He also agreed to uphold the Protestant religion, and to the return from exile of the other Protestant lords.
There has never been any evidence that Mary was having an affair with Rizzio. If she had been, Randolph would have known, yet he does not mention it in any of his reports to Cecil.
Mary, Queen of Scots has a Valois Child
She spent days in her chamber weeping, close to nervous collapse. Nevertheless, on 9 MarchMary was having a small supper party in her private apartments, with Rizzio and five close friends, when Darnley and a group of Protestant nobles burst in.
They dragged Rizzio from the table and into the next room - where they stabbed him 56 times. Bothwell had also been a target, but he managed to climb out of a window and descape to Dunbar. Alone and defenceless, Mary decided that her only hope was Darnley. Two nights after the murder she went to his room and convinced him that the Protestant lords were using him.