Turks in Hungary - Wikipedia
Most of the areas which today are within modern Greece's borders were at some point in the . The Ottomans required that male children from Christian peasant villages be called Prokritoi or Dimogerontes, the effective rulers of Greek towns and cities. .. Mittheilungen aus der Geschichte und Dichtung der Neu-Griechen. The relationship between the Ottomans and the Christians did not evolve spies and merchants in several Ottoman cities, Venice was the only. The Turks in Hungary, also referred to as Hungarian Turks refers to ethnic Turks living in Hungary. The Turkish people first began to migrate predominately from Anatolia during the Ottoman rule of Hungary (). A second wave of Ottoman-Turkish migration occurred in the late 19th century when relations Brigitte; Moe, Christian, Yearbook of Muslims in Europe, Volume 1.
The battle of ideals, rhetoric, and material for the fate of Eastern Anatolia opened with this dialog. He cheered the deputies further with his prediction of the imminent signing of a third peace treaty the first Ukrainesecond Russia, and with Romania.
Halil Bey thought the Entente to cease hostilities and bring a rapid end to the war. Nationalism emerged at the center of the diplomatic struggle between the Central Powers and the Bolsheviks.
Thus, the Ottomans mobilized the Caucasus Committee to make claims on behalf of the Muslims. The Caucasian Christians was far ahead in this new world concept.
Ottoman armies had tied down large numbers of Allied troops on various fronts, keeping them away from theatres in Europe where they would have been used against German and Austrian forces. Moreover, they claimed that their success at Gallipoli had been an important factor in bringing about the collapse of Russia, resulting in the revolution of April They had turned the war in favor of Germany and her allies.
Enver Pasha maintained an optimistic stance, hid information that made the Ottoman position appear weak, and let most of the Ottoman elite believe that the war was still winnable. They were convinced, however, that soon enough Russia would recover and reemerge as the dominant power in the region and shut that window.
The principle of "self-determination" became the criterion, or at least in part, to give them a chance to stand on their feet. Ottoman's did not see a chance of these new states to stand against new Russia.
Persecution of Christians - Wikipedia
These new Muslim states needed support to be emerged as viable independent states. In order to consolidate a buffer zone with Russia both for the Empire and these new stateshowever, Ottomans needed to expel the Bolsheviks from Azerbaijan and the North Caucasus before the end of war.
Enver also knew the importance of Kars—Julfa railroad and the adjacent areas for this support. Goal was set forward beginning from to end of the war. This preference to remain part of Russia led Caucasusian politics to the Trebizond Peace Conference to base their diplomacy on the incoherent assertion that they were an integral part of Russia but yet not bound  The representatives were Rauf Bey for the Empire, and Akaki Chkhenkeli from the Transcaucasian delegation.
On 11 May, a new peace conference opened at Batum. The goal was to assist Azerbaijan Democratic Republic at Battle of Bakuthen turn north to assist the embattled Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus and then sweep southward to encircle the British in Mesopotamia and retake Baghdad. The cave of the Seven Sleepers is also located in Ephesus. InTurks and Kurds massacred tens of thousands Assyrians in Siirt. Assyrians were attacked in the Hakkari mountains by the Turkish army with the help of Kurdish tribes, and many Christians were deported and about a quarter million Assyrians were murdered or died due to persecution.
This number doubles if the killings during the s are included. The Kurds fought the Assyrians also due to fears that the Armenians, or European colonial powers backing them, would assume control in Anatolia.
It is estimated that between 80, andArmenians were killed during these pre-War massacres. According to professor Martin van Bruinessenrelations between Christians and Kurdish and other Muslim peoples were often bitter and during World War I "Christians of Tur Abdin in Turkey for instance have been subjected to brutal treatment by Kurdish tribes, who took their land and even their daughters".
In September more than 30 Armenian and Assyrian villages were burnt by Kurdish and Turkish mobs in the Urmia region.
- Ottoman Greece
- History of the Ottoman Empire during World War I
- Persecution of Muslims during Ottoman contraction
There was a policy during the Hamidian era to use Kurdish tribes as irregulars Hamidiye units against the Armenians. Under the terms of the peace treaty1. Other terms of the treaty included various provisions to protect the rights of religious minorities and a concession by the Turks to allow the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate to remain in Istanbul. Eusebius states that, hating his predecessor's household, Maximinus ordered that the leaders of the churches should be put to death.
Decius authorized roving commissions visiting the cities and villages to supervise the execution of the sacrifices and to deliver written certificates to all citizens who performed them.
Christians were often given opportunities to avoid further punishment by publicly offering sacrifices or by burning incense to Roman gods, and were accused by the Romans of impiety when they refused. Refusal was punished by arrest, imprisonment, torture, and executions.
Christians fled to safe havens in the countryside and some purchased their certificates, called libelli. Several councils held at Carthage debated the extent to which the community should accept these lapsed Christians.
The Christian church, despite no indication in the surviving texts that the edict targeted any specific group, never forgot the reign of Decius whom they labelled as that "fierce tyrant". Roman authorities tried hard to avoid Christians because they "goaded, chided, belittled and insulted the crowds until they demanded their death.
The proconsul obliged some of them and then sent the rest away, saying that if they wanted to kill themselves there was plenty of rope available or cliffs they could jump off.
The 2nd-century text Martyrdom of Polycarp relates the story of Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, who did not desire death, but died a martyrbound and burned at the stake, then stabbed when the fire miraculously failed to touch him.
The Martyrdom of Polycarp advances an argument for a particular understanding of martyrdom, with Polycarp's death as its prized example. The example of the Phrygian Quintus, who actively sought out martyrdom, is repudiated. According to two different Christian traditions, Simon bar Kokhbathe leader of the second Jewish revolt against Rome AD who was proclaimed Messiah, persecuted the Christians: Justin Martyr claims that Christians were punished if they did not deny and blaspheme Jesus Christ, while Eusebius asserts that Bar Kokhba harassed them because they refused to join his revolt against the Romans.
The Great Persecution[ edit ] Main article: Diocletian Persecution These persecutions culminated with the reign of Diocletian and Galerius at the end of the third century and the beginning of the 4th century. The Great Persecution is considered the largest. Beginning with a series of four edicts banning Christian practices and ordering the imprisonment of Christian clergy, the persecution intensified until all Christians in the empire were commanded to sacrifice to the Roman gods or face immediate execution.
According to legend,one of the martyrs during the Diocletian persecution was Saint Georgea Roman soldier who loudly renounced the Emperor's edict, and in front of his fellow soldiers and tribunes claimed to be a Christian by declaring his worship of Jesus Christ.
Christianity in Turkey
Though Diocletian zealously persecuted Christians in the Eastern part of the empire, his co-emperors in the West did not follow the edicts so Christians in GaulSpainand Britannia were virtually unmolested. This persecution lasted until Constantine I came to power in and legalized Christianity.
It was not until Theodosius I in the later 4th century that Christianity would become the official religion of the Empire.
Between these two events Julian II temporarily restored the traditional Roman religion and established broad religious tolerance renewing Pagan and Christian hostilities. Martyrs were considered uniquely exemplary of the Christian faith, and few early saints were not also martyrs.
The New Catholic Encyclopedia states that "Ancient, medieval and early modern hagiographers were inclined to exaggerate the number of martyrs.