It would control my dam's god, Setebos, And make a vassal of him."--(I, ii, ) . Prospero's relationship towards Ariel is of a quite different nature than his. Shakespeare Tempest - Relationship between Prospero, Caliban and Ariel in The the same thing in some views, with God) as he controls the action on stage . The The Tempest characters covered include: Prospero, Miranda, Ariel, Caliban, Ferdinand, Alonso, The honest lord Gonzalo aided Prospero in his escape.
Sources[ edit ] The source from which Shakespeare got the idea for Ariel is not known, though there have been many candidates proposed by scholars. Sprites or demons such as Ariel were viewed during the Renaissance from either religious or scientific points of view: Some scholars compare Ariel to demons of the air described in Renaissance demonologywhile others claim that he is an archetype of a more neutral category of sprites.
These spirits often disturb the air, stir up tempests and thunders. They do not retain one form, but take on various forms Jewish demonology, for example, had a figure by the name of Ariel who was described as the spirit of the waters.
Another spirit, Urielis also comparable. In Isaiah 29, an Ariel is mentioned as another name for Jerusalem. In the Geneva Bible, which Shakespeare and others of the time would have known, the entry carries an interesting footnote describing this Ariel as the "Lyon of God. Other scholars propose that the ca. The character, named Shrimp, is also an air demon controlled by a magician.
A few scenes of the play feature this demon performing tasks nearly identical to those Shakespeare's Ariel performed. Since it is very likely Shakespeare was familiar with the play, it is possible that Ariel is based on Shrimp, but evidence remains inconclusive.
Prospero Seeks Identity In Caliban And Ariel
Shakespeare, however, refuses to make Ariel a will-less character, infusing him with desires and near-human feelings uncharacteristic of most sprites of this type. Scholars have tried to discover just what sort of "quainte device" would have been used by the King's Men in portraying this scene.
Ariel's actor would have been unable to hide the food himself, having harpy wings over his arms which cumbered movement.
The actor would not even have been able to sweep the food into a receptacle behind the table, since the theatre had seating on three sides. What was needed was some sort of device to act on the signal of Ariel slapping his wings on the table.
This device was probably a false table top which could be tripped by a boy underneath while the harpy's wings covered the food. When the wings lifted, the food would be gone, apparently by magic.
Later in act three, when Ariel appears and disappears with thunder, another trick was probably used, involving some sort of basket on wires, covered in cloud designs, which the Globe theatre then had. Ariel may have descended from the air in this device as a harpy, spoken his lines, and ascended in the same device. Ariel may have descended on the back of an eagle, rather than clouds, or with no device at all—wires being attached to his harpy wings.
Scholars have wondered whether Shakespeare originally intended the actor for Ariel to cover Ceres' role, and give it away in this line. The need for a dual role may have been caused by a shortage of boys capable of playing female parts boys usually played all female roles in Shakespeare's day as there are many female roles in The Tempest.
Caliban does not ask them for his freedom, as would be expected. Rather, he begs them to be his master, even his god. Caliban thus shows himself to be incapable of autonomy. In his relationship to Stephano, Caliban is even more pathetic than in his relationship to Prospero, for he abandons his rebellious attitude for one of hero-worship and grovelling.
By putting himself in willing slavery to Stephano, who is no more than a drunkard and a buffoon, Caliban shows himself to be truly in a pathetic state. The vicious curses that he had constantly sent to his old master Prospero are replaced by requests to lick the shoe of his new master.
A drunk Caliban even attempts a poetic song for the first time, and makes a fool of himself by stumbling over his name: Caliban becomes a more sympathetic character in the second half of the work. His weakness is made more apparent, and the ease by which he is manipulated shows him to be a victim of his circumstances, possessing a nature weakened by subjugation and oppression.
Although the characterization of Caliban shows him to be a more pathetic character as the play progresses, the characterization of Ariel displays quite the opposite.
Ariel (The Tempest) - Wikipedia
Ariel occupies the most important role of the play during the last two acts. It is Prospero who conceives the ideas for enchanting the shipwrecked Italians, but he can only carry them out with the aid of Ariel. In the same way that Ariel is dependent upon Prospero for his freedom, Prospero is dependent upon Ariel for the fulfillment of his plans.
This entails a significant reversal in roles. Ariel becomes the one in control, for it is his power of enchantment upon which Prospero is dependent. In his speech to Alonso, Antonio and Sebastian in Act III, Ariel condemns these three in the same type of authoritarian language which had previously been reserved only to Prospero: I and my fellows Are ministers of Fate.
My fellow ministers Are like invulnerable. His changing use of language is evidence of a changing attitude. As Ariel comes closer to his freedom, his demeanor becomes more confident and less submissive.
He is becoming more independent, and thus more strong in character. Where the second half of the work shows a Caliban increasingly destitute and pathetic, it shows an Ariel increasingly self-assertive and autonomous. The conclusion of The Tempest shows Prospero regaining his dukedom, Ariel finding his freedom, and Caliban resigning himself once again to the authority of Prospero. Although it seems at first to be a pleasant state of affairs, a closer look reveals it to be quite the opposite.
Prospero is surely unfit to be a duke, as his overbearing and oppressive nature throughout the play attests to. It seems as if Ariel, in winning his freedom, is the only one of these characters whose state is truly better than it was at the opening of the play.Ariel and Prospero
This is significant in that among these characters, the distinguishing characteristic of Ariel is that he is not human. Both commit a crime punishable by death and both escape punishment. Shakespeare, however, sheds light on this complexity by paralleling Prospero and Caliban.
Although Caliban appears to be nothing more than a vile slave, his complexity of language is comparable to that of Prospero. Ariel is a fairy spirit who desires freedom and justice, which Prospero likewise yearns for since his banishment. Consequently, Prospero expects restitution for the injustice he received from his foul brother Antonio.
Paradoxically, he also seeks freedom from anger, an emotion that has imprisoned him in solitary bitterness on the island. The roles of Prospero, Caliban, and Ariel are closely interwoven into the plot of the play. He lacks any form of autonomy, and his existence appears almost dependent on the tasks assigned to him by Prospero.
More importantly, water suggests a catharsis or cleansing action, which serves to heal the emotional wounds from a tragic occurrence Janko. The three characters almost appear to be one inseparable entity, each complementing the other in the workings of the plot.
The natural hierarchy and order of the world is disrupted as Prospero incorporates elements of both Ariel and Caliban into his character. Shakespeare makes it evident in the first lines of the play that the natural order of the world has been disrupted. The social hierarchy here is reversed because the kings and nobles are receiving orders from the seamen.
Prospero regains his humanity and takes his rightful place as Duke of Milan.