Psycholinguistics/Language and Thought - Wikiversity
language, we need to distinguish various aspects of a communicative A sentence is the grammatical object that each utterance corresponds to. And this meaning is purely linguistic. This can be In logical terms, this thought is called a PROPOSITION. Lexical semantics explicates the relationship between words and. and hyperintensional notions, fragments of natural language, and full-fledged The problem involves the relationship between sentence meaning . Distinction,” Mind (); Robyn Carston, Thoughts and Utterances: The Pragmatics of. The relationship between language and thought has been a subject of Gorgias suggests that every utterance is an action and every meaningful action lies needs effort, and poor words of sentence structures and although.
As people think about what to say to while speaking, there are errors and corrections in speech. Tag questions are also a part of non-fluency features; these are used by the speaker to check if the listener understands what the speaker is saying. An example is "Do you know what I mean? Deictic expressions are utterances that need more explanation in order to be understood, like: Colloquial lexis is a type of speech that is casual in which the utterance is usually more relaxed.
ADDI MUHAEMIN: LANGUAGE THOUGHT AND UTTERANCE
Child-directed speech A mother kissing her baby daughter The development of utterances in children is facilitated by parents, adults, or any other guardian the child has growing up. Studies have indicated that this development of utterances is affected by the parent, adult, or guardian's socioeconomic status SES. Hoff conducted an analysis that shows support for this correlation in which shows that the mean length of utterance and vocabulary of mothers who talk to their children is related to their SES status and thus child vocabulary development.
High-SES mothers use longer utterances when talking to their children and a wider variety of words. They also spend more time talking to their children. Low-SES mothers use shorter utterances and a smaller vocabulary. As a result, children with more educated parents have larger vocabularies Hoff, For example, the phonology in child-directed speech is different: Utterances are spoken more slowly, with longer pauses in between utterances, higher pitches, etc. Different Language, Different Thinking[ edit ] Based on such prior works as Whorf hypothesis, authors in the past have been interested in establishing whether people using different languages think differently.
Would it be expected that an individual speaking English and one speaking Japanese would think differently just because of the language they use? With Russian, the verb would connote not only the tense but also the gender. In Turkish, the same expression would give information on how the information was acquired.
This example depicts the different requirements that languages demand from their speakers. Nevertheless, do these different languages remember their experiences differently due just to their different languages? Some scholars argue that this is so, that depending on the language; the different speakers will encode different aspects in order to apply them in their language. On the other hand, other scholars argue that linguistic utterances are wide such that just because Indonesian speakers have not included the same information as the Turkish does not meant they are not paying attention to that aspect — it only means they are not taking attention to the aspect.
The argument is that all people think the same but just talk it differently Boroditsky, Grammatical gender in languages is another aspect that shows that language influences how human beings think. In such romanticized language as Spanish, nouns can be masculine or feminine with words falling under the different gender is treated differently but those falling within the same gender being treated similarly grammatically. This reference for example of the Russians considering a chair to be masculine and a bed to be feminine affects and shapes how the individuals think.
A word described in two languages that describe an item with one having a masculine and the other feminine word are likely to be described with different words by the two speakers even if they are being described in English, a language that has no grammatical genders. Similarly, when English speakers are grammatical gender systems, their their grammatical gender system is influenced.
Another common argument is that language under specifies meaning such that meaning is much richer than the communication process. The argument is that speakers compress their thoughts putting thoughts into languageimplying and not explicitly stating what their thoughts are whereas listeners deduce own versions from the language that is presented. An extension of this approach in cognitive science is the concept of the language of thought or mentalese.
This suggests that when an individual wants to speak, they translate from mentalese to the spoken language. An extension of this approach is that human beings have the same cognitive architecture and mental processes thus the language of thought is universal although they express it using different languages Saeed, Multilingualism and Thought[ edit ] An important consideration is whether being bilingual or multilingual affects how an individual thinks. Bilinguals for example change the way they perceive the world with the language they are using Leva, Shai Danziger, a cognitive psychologist who was bilingual speaking both English and Hebrews confesses that he has different reactions to the two languages.
He argued that an individual could exhibit different personalities depending on the language. Expressing his opinion that English is more polite than Hebrews, he gave an example that Hebrew Speaking Israelis who speak English are likely to think differently and to be more polite for instance while driving when using English than while using Hebrews Jones, Francois Grosjean as cited in Flora, expressing similar argument however argues that thoughts can be visual-spatial and non-linguistic thus the effect of language comes into effect the moment the individual intends to speak.
Emphasizing the importance of being multilingual, Flora points out that monolinguals are underutilizing their abilities. Another aspect expressed by Flora quoting a study done in Canada is that bilingual brains are healthier as they delay the onset of dementia four years on average, enhances attention, and cognitive control in children and adults and enhances the ability to learn other languages. Bilinguals are better at more divergent thinking for example in processing unrelated concepts and bilingual children are better able to process language at a fundamental metalinguistic level as compared to their monolingual peers Flora, Does it mean Tzeltal-speaking individuals do not understand the concepts of left and right or that those tribes in the Amazon do not understand there is more than two?
Research indicates thought can exist without language. Further evidence that language can exist before language is the magical shows by Renee Baillargeon whose stunts that defied fundamental principles of numbers resulted to young babies who had not yet acquired language to stare at those scenes more than when they stared at physically plausible ones.
Another example of existence of thought without language is in the study by Susan Goldin-Meadow on deaf children. Mental images are further provided as examples of thoughts without language.
In addition, psychological studies have shown evidence of visual thinking where people can mentally manipulate images, rotate them etc.
Conclusion[ edit ] The relationship between language and thought has been a subject of debate for many years. The empirical evidence presented suggests that language shapes thinking putting to task the previously held theories on language universalism.
Through a review of literature, the conclusion is that language and thought have interactive relationship in that language dictates thought whereas thought also influences language. Further conclusions include; language organizes thought, people with different cultures and languages think differently, multilingual individuals have broader thinking as compared to monolinguals, and that thought can exist without language.
Present research in this are however is not exhaustive and thus the need for further research especially one that utilizes the new technologies in brain neurology. References[ edit ] Andrew, R. The MIT encyclopedia of the cognitive science. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Key to intelligence questioned. How does our language shape the way we think?
Gorgias, sophist and artist. Can an insect speak? The case of the honeybee dance language. Social Studies of Science, 34 1 The relationship between thought and reality in cognitive semantics. Does Language dictate the way we think? How language shapes thought. Scientific America, 2 One individual, two identities: Frame switching among biculturals. Journal of Consumer Research, 35, The Language of Thinking.
Psycholinguistics/Language and Thought
Phi Delta Kappan, 78 5: Relationship between language and thought from a cross-cultural perspective. The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed. The Cambridge handbook of consciousness.
Learning Exercise[ edit ] After reviewing the chapter, please read the following, paying attention to the questions: Language and thought as discussed in the chapter designates essentially, a distinctive element of human knowledge and communication, complex and mysterious in nature that closely embraces concomitance.
Every theory was cognizant of the utility of language despite its complexity. Sapir and Whorf, Rene Descartes, Bertrand Russell, Noam Chomsky, Wittgenstein, Frege Gottlob, Lev Vygotsky and many other scholars for instance, were confronted with the same paradigm of language-thought relationship, bringing forward different opinions not because of their difference in language that determined each ones thought process, but due to the universality of the objects of thought.
In understanding the relationship between language and thought, I have used the following analogy to support a number of questions presented. A professor of philosophy flew to Brazil for a holiday period. During his time in Brazil, he was caught by the Brazilian authorities drunk and disorderly in public and was arrested. My clothes died too and the wristwatch I had. Using his words, a person might say that the man is insane without subscribing him even for a medical test.
However, in reality and despite his language, is the professor unintelligent? To what extent then can language depict in reality the thought ability and process of another?. Do animals not communicate? Moreover, if they do, how do they? We all agree that animals are irrational beings. If then language dictates or has a relationship with our thought process, how does it relate with the irrationality of the animals?
When a dog barks at night, it communicates to the owner that a stranger may be around. A person can train a dog to take a responsibility of guarding a home and the dog responds by doing so. Training the dog involves a use of language be it sign language or verbal language.