Major Components of the Solar System
6th Grade Home · Light Speed Ahead! How would you compare the size of the solar system to the Milky Way galaxy? Visit Galaxies Galore, Games and More to see what relationships exist between our Solar System and the Milky Way Galaxy. Pin Holes Activity. Materials: Black paper (4 inches by 4 inches); Straight pin. Kean University Continuing Education. Implementing the Science Standards K Major Components of the Solar System. Introduction. The Sun and the. How many planets are in the solar system? How did it form in the Milky Way galaxy? Learn facts about the solar system's genesis, plus its.
And just to get a sense of scale here, I think probably the largest distance that we can somehow relate to is about miles. You can get into a car for an hour, hour and a half, and go about miles. And on the earth that would be about this far.
It would be a speck that would look something like that. That is miles. And also to get us a bit of scale, let's think about a speed that at least we can kind of comprehend. And that would be, maybe, the speed of a bullet.
Maybe we can't comprehend it, but I'll say this is the fastest thing that we could maybe comprehend. It goes about-- and there are different types of bullets depending on the type of gun and all of that-- about meters per second, which is about 1, kilometers per hour.
And this is also roughly the speed of a jet. So just to give a sense of scale here, the earth's circumference-- so if you were to go around the planet-- is about 40, kilometers. So if you were to travel at the speed of a bullet or the speed of a jetliner, at 1, kilometers an hour, it would take you 40 hours to circumnavigate the earth. And I think none of this information is too surprising. You might have taken a or hour flight that gets you-- not all the way around the earth-- but gets you pretty far.
San Francisco to Australia, or something like that. So right now these aren't scales that are too crazy. Although, even for me, the earth itself is a pretty mind-blowingly large object. Now, with that out of the way let's think about the sun. Because the sun starts to approach something far huger. So this obviously here is the sun. And I think most people appreciate that the sun is much larger than the earth, and that it's pretty far away from the earth.
But I don't think most people, including myself, fully appreciate how large the sun is or how far it is away from the earth. So just to give you a sense, the sun is times the circumference of the earth. So if we do that same thought exercise there-- if we said, OK, if I'm traveling at the speed of a bullet or the speed of a jetliner, it would take me 40 hours to go around the earth. Well, how long would it take to go around the sun? Through their observational evidence, and by using the newly invented telescope, they produced data and logic supporting a Sun-centered, heliocentric model of the Solar System.
Through these revolutionary findings, geocentrism began to crumble.
Scale of earth and sun
In the later s, Newton developed his three basic laws of motion and the theory of universal gravity by combining physics, mathematics, and astronomy. These ideas laid the foundation for our current understanding of the Earth and the cosmos, and helped astronomer Edwin Hubble construct the modern-day Big Bang theory. Stargazers Ptolemy about 85— Claudius Ptolemy's theory extended the cosmological theories of Aristotle.
Earth was at a center of a series of concentric spheres containing the Moon, the planets, the Sun, and a final sphere of fixed stars.
Copernicus — A Catholic, Polish astronomer, Nicolaus Copernicus, synthesized observational data to formulate a Sun-centered cosmology, launching modern astronomy and setting off a scientific revolution. Galileo — Galileo Galilei, an Italian Renaissance man, used a telescope of his own invention to collect evidence that supported the Sun-centered model of the Solar System. Sir Isaac Newton — By combining physics, mathematics, and astronomy, Newton developed the three basic laws of motion and the theory of universal gravity.
Henrietta Leavitt — By measuring the amount of time between the fluctuating brightness levels of variable stars, Leavitt discovered that it would be possible to estimate their distance away from the Earth, and possible to map the Universe.
Edwin Hubble — Hubble drew upon existing ideas and evidence to demonstrate that the Universe was much larger than previously thought and proved that it is expanding — laying the foundations for the Big Bang theory. In one second it races around the Earth seven times.
Then in a blink of an eye, light reaches the Moon. Going out to the stars, Astronomers know that by studying Cepheid variables, the fluctuation in brightness of certain stars, we can calculate the star's distance from Earth. The longer the period of fluctuation, the brighter the star. So even though a star might appear extremely dim, if it had a long period it must actually be extremely large.
The star appeared dim only because it was extremely far away. By calculating how bright it appeared from Earth and comparing this to its intrinsic brightness, Astronomers could estimate how much of the star's light had been lost while reaching Earth, and how far away the star actually was.
Touching the edge of the Universe In the scale of the Universe, light would take eight minutes to reach the Sun.
Where is Earth located in the galaxy?
And four years to reach Proxima Centauri, the next nearest star. But could light ever cross the entire Universe? Or might it still have a long way to go?
Nobody knows for sure. The Biosphere Out With the Bad, in With the Good Different elements joining, colliding, breaking apart, and joining again is a very ferocious stage in the life of any planet. Even after the Earth formed, when the atmosphere began to stabilize, it was under siege.
Early microbes, in their struggle for life, clashed with and consumed hydrogen gas. Hundreds of millions of years passed.
These microbes evolved into prokaryotes and adapted further, finding energy in sunlight. Then, in a process called photosynthesis, they flooded the atmosphere with oxygen.
Scale of earth and sun (video) | Khan Academy
The rise of oxygen formed a protective layer around the Earth and also helped cool the Earth, eventually encasing the planet with ice in a series of "Snowball Earths" 2.
Some life forms survived, some proliferated, pushing oxygen levels higher.
This enabled a greater diversity of life. Venus — Venus is the next planet from the Sun after Mercury. It is also made of rock. It is about the same size as Earth.
It takes days to travel around the Sun. Earth — This is where we live! Earth is made of rock and is the only planet where water is liquid. The other planets are either too hot or too cold. Earth takes days to travel around the Sun. Mars — Mars is a little smaller than Earth, but a lot further out. Jupiter — Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System. You could fit 1, Earths inside Jupiter.Formation of the Solar System - The Dr. Binocs Show - Learn Videos For Kids
Jupiter has 66 moons; one of them, Ganymede, is bigger than Mercury. Jupiter is five times as far from the Sun as the Earth is and takes almost 12 years to travel around the Sun. Saturn — Saturn is famous for its rings. The rings were first observed with a telescope in by Galileo and are made up of huge numbers of small lumps of ice and dust mostly ice. The pieces in the rings may be as small as a millimetre or as large as a few metres across. You could fit 63 planets the size of Earth inside Uranus.
Neptune — Neptune is the farthest planet from the Sun.