Akbar the Great Biography - Facts, Life History of The Mughal Emperor
Wives, Mariam-uz-Zamani Begum(Jodha Bai) . In November of , Akbar married his first cousin, Ruqaiya Sultan Begum at Kabul. The marriage was arranged by Akbar's father and Ruqaiya's uncle, Emperor Humayun, and In , on the advice of Shaikh Abdu'n Nabi, he ordered the exhumation of Mir Murtaza. Hamida Banu Begum - Akbar's mother travels by boat to Agra. . Ruqaiya Sultan Begum - Inside the Gardens of Babur, located in Kabul, Afghanistan. Inside the Gardens of Aisan Daulat Begum - Babur seeks Aisan Daulat Begum's advice . Humayun nama, Chapter 9. marriage of Hamida-banu Begam and Humayun. 2. Akbar loved his mother, Hamida Begum, respected her and sought her advice on important mattes. His second royal wife was Salima Sultan Begum ( ), another first who has been glorified wrongly as Jodhabai and as the great love of Akbar's life. Similarly, he raised the age of marriage.
After he got rid of Bairam Khan, he was advised at court by his wet nurse, Maham Anga. When he defeated his half brother, Mirza Muhammad Hakimwho rebelled against him several times, he left Kabul in the hands of his half sister, Bakht-un-Nisa Begumin Though he pardoned his half brother, she remained official governor of Kabul until the death of Mirza Hakim.
First, all communities in his empire, including women, were effected by his economic and social policies. He took landmark decisions to withdraw the tax levied on pilgrimages made by non-Muslims which used to yield millions in earning to the empire and later also abolished jizya, the tax levied on non-Muslims by almost all Muslim rulers.
As women activists, today, we are still fighting to ameliorate the plight of widows in our societies for which we have established national and international networks. Widows are particularly cruelly marginalized in Hindu communities in India and Nepal. Vrindavanin India, the legendary birthplace of Lord Krishnais called the city of destitute widows, women who have been abandoned by their families and sing bhajans or beg in the streets in order to survive.
Akbar encouraged widows to remarry and many of his own wives were widows. Similarly, he raised the age of marriage. He and Ruqaiya Sultan Begum had been mere children when they were married off by their parents but his later wives were older women.
Equally astonishing may have been the Rajput custom of Jauhar whereby women burnt themselves to death rather than be captured, dishonoured or enslaved after a defeat in war. Akbar was too closely allied to the Rajput rulers, the most diehard enforcers and defenders of Sati, to abolish that custom altogether.
However, on the other hand, it has been argued — see G. Malleson reprint Akbar and the Rise of the Mughal Empirep. Such deeds were abhorrent to the merciful mind of Akbar, and he discouraged the practice by all means in his power. But he issued an order that if any woman was unwilling to perform Sati, the sacrifice was not to be permitted.
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He also tried to enforce this decree. The British eventually banned the rite but reports of Sati still trickle out from some parts of India. Over the next nineteen years, the couple would have four more children.
As Aurangzebs chief consort, Dilras wielded considerable influence over him and she was amongst the highest ranked figures at the Mughal court unlike her husbands secondary wives, who were very unpopular at court.
However, Dilras did not take part in politics and in administrative affairs as her husband did not seemed to have allowed even her to interfere in such matters.
Dilras known physical and personal attributes describe her as being beautiful, vivacious, charming, pertaining to her character, she seems to have been a proud and self-willed woman and her husband stood in some awe of her. She was reputed to have been irascible, and was, says Aurangzeb, a woman of extreme imperiousness, Dilras imperious nature did not create problems in her marriage, as Aurangzeb always acted humbly with his haughty and imperious wife and had great respect and admiration for her 7.
History Of Akbar
She was also the sister of her fathers successor and the sixth Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Jahanaras early education was entrusted to Sati al-Nisa Khanam, the sister to Jahangirs poet laureate, Sati al-Nisa Khanam was known for her knowledge of the Quran and Persian literature as well as for her knowledge of etiquette, housekeeping and medicine. She also served as principal lady-in-waiting for Mumtaz Mahal, Jahanaras mother, many of the women in the royal household were accomplished at reading and writing poetry and painting.
They also played chess, polo and hunted outdoors. The women had access to Akbars library, full of books on world religions and Persian, Turkish and she was engaged in her daily game of chess with her father Shah Jahan when they first learned of Mumtaz Mahals difficulty with labor.
Jaharnara rushed to her mothers side but could do nothing to save her, upon the death of Mumtaz inJahanara, aged 17, took the place of her mother as First Lady of the Empire, despite her father having three other wives.
Her father frequently took her advice and entrusted her with charge of the Imperial Seal, in when Aurangzeb angered his father Shah Jahan, d office Jahanara interceded on Aurangzebs behalf and convinced Shah Jahan to pardon him and restore his rank. Shah Jahans fondness for his daughter was reflected in the titles that he bestowed upon her. Her power was such that, unlike the imperial princesses, she was allowed to live in her own palace. In Marchjust days after her birthday, Jahanara suffered serious burns to her body.
Shah Jahan ordered that vast sums of alms be given to the poor, prisoners be released, Aurangzeb, Murad, and Shiastah Khan returned to Delhi to see her.Lavina Tandon Sebagai Ruqaiya Sultan Begum
Accounts differ as to what happened, some say Jahanaras garments, doused in fragrant perfume oils, caught fire. Others accounts assert that the princesss favorite dancing-womans dress caught fire, during her illness, Shah Jahan, was so concerned for the welfare of his favourite daughter, that he made only brief appearances at his daily durbar in the diwan-i-am.
Royal physicians failed to heal Jahanaras burns, a year after the accident, Jahanara had fully recovered. She later visited Ajmer, following the set by her great-grandfather Akbar.
In honor of his coronation,6 FebruaryShah Jahan awarded his wife Mumtaz Mahal, Jahanaras mother, ashrafis, rupees, Jahanara receivedashrafis, rupees and an annual grant ofUpon Mumtaz Mahals death her personal fortune was divided by Shah Jahan between Jahanara Begum and the rest of Mumtaz Mahals surviving children, the pargana of Panipat was also granted to her 8.
Nadira was thus, of the most exalted lineage being a Timurid both from her father and her mothers side, nadiras paternal uncle was Emperor Shah Jahan, who later became her father-in-law as well. Nadira Bagum was considered to be beautiful, and considerably intelligent.
Her husband-to-be was reportedly eager for the marriage and they had a relationship throughout his turbulent life. The marriage was arranged when the couple were both teenagers, by Daras mother, Mumtaz Mahal. When the Empress died with the birth of her last child, Gauharara Begum, after much coaxing by many, including his favorite daughter Jahanara Begum, he resumed life as normal and let her oversee the remaining aspects of the wedding.
Princess Nadira married her first cousin, Prince Dara Shikoh, on February 1, at Agra, midst great celebrations, pomp, the nikah ceremony was performed after midnight.
Nadira Begum emerges in Mughal chronicles as being no less beautiful than her mother-in-law and she bore her husband eight children, with two sons, Sulaiman Shikoh and Sipihr Shikoh and a daughter Jahanzeb Banu Begum, surviving to play important roles in future events.
Ruqaiya Sultan Begum - Wikipedia
Jahanara had consciously decided to support Dara, the most beloved to her of all of her siblings, over Aurangzeb, according to legend, Aurangzeb had fallen sick sometime during his teen years. It was at time he called Jahanara in.
He then asked her if she would support him in his bid for the crown. Despite how unpopular this must have made her in his sight, Dara Shikoh was said to be a fine painter, and many of his works, when criticized, were considered to be almost of a professional standard. Some of his works were collected and gifted to Nadira Banu, and it was a token of her affection for him that she cherished it until her death, Nadira bore her husband eight children, four sons and four daughters, Unnamed daughter died in infancy.
She was also the longest serving Mughal empress, having a tenure of almost fifty years, Ruqaiya was a first cousin of her husband, and was a Mughal princess by birth. Her father, Hindal Mirza, was the youngest brother of Akbars father Humayun and she was only nine years old when, immediately after the death of her father, she was betrothed to Akbar.
The couple were to remain very closely bonded all their lives, in later life, Ruqaiya raised Akbars favorite grandson Khurram. She died just a year before her foster-son, Shah Jahan, Ruqaiyas oldest paternal uncle was the second Mughal emperor Humayun while her most notable paternal aunt was the imperial princess, Gulbadan Begum, the author of Humayun-nama.
She was a descendant of the lines of the highest Central Asian aristocracy, Timur or Tamerlane the Great through his son Miran Shah, Ruqaiya was thus, Akbars only wife who was his equal in birth and stature. On 20 NovemberHindal Mirza died fighting valorously for Humayun in a battle against their half-brother, out of affection to the memory of his brother, Humayun betrothed Hindals nine-year-old daughter, Ruqaiya, to his son Akbar. Their betrothal took place in Kabul, Afghanistan, shortly after Akbars first appointment as a viceroy in the province of Ghazni, during the period of political uncertainty following Humayuns death inRuqaiya and the other female members of the imperial family were staying in Kabul.
InRuqaiya came to India and joined Akbar in Punjab and she was accompanied by her mother-in-law Hamida Banu Begum, her aunt Gulbadan Begum, and many other female members of the imperial family. Ruqaiyas marriage with Akbar was solemnized in Jalandhar, Punjab, when both of them were 14 years-old, about the same time, her year-old first-cousin Salima Sultan Begum, married Akbars considerably older regent, Bairam Khan. After resting for four months in Punjab, the imperial family set out for Delhi.
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The Mughals were at last ready to settle down in India, Ruqaiya became Empress of the Mughal Empire at the age of fourteen years following her husbands accession to the throne in She remained childless throughout her marriage but assumed the responsibility for the upbringing of Akbars favourite grandson. Ruqaiyas adoption of Prince Khurram signified her rank and power in the harem as one of the special privileges of women of rank was to care for ranking children not their own.
Just prior to Khurrams birth, a soothsayer had predicted to Ruqaiya Sultan Begum that the still unborn child was destined for imperial greatness. Ruqaiya even oversaw Khurrams education, for she, unlike her husband, was well educated and he recognized him as his real child.
Jahangir also noted in his memoirs that Ruqaiya had loved his son, Khurram, Khurram remained with her, until he had turned 13 She was an administrator and served as de facto regent of India from to and she may have been born of Hindu origin with her initial name being Udham Bai. She was later appointed as a Mansabdar, a ranking position in the Emperors army that was used to enforce his rule and maintain his authority.
Ahmad Shah Bahadur proved to be a ruler and was strongly influenced by his mother. A series of defeats and internal struggles led to his downfall and it was rumored that she had an affair with the Nawab Bahadur Javid Khan, who was the eunuch superintendent of the zenana.
When the Nawab Imad-ul-Mulk reached Delhi inthe emperor and she probably died after in prison, although the exact date and her gravesite are unknown. Hindal has married once and so his dedication towards his wife and their apparent daughter. The father of Ruqaiya was the youngest and most favored son of the Mughal emperor. She married with emperor Akbar in the year of And she became the first wife of the Akbar. She was the Empress of Mughal Empire. On February 14,the coronation of Akbar took place, and the Ruqaiya Begum was served as Mughal Empress from to Ruqaiya was always their most favored wife and remained his principal consort till the very end.
Ruqaiya was not only the wife of Akbar but also she was goof friend of Akbar. Akbar gives her rights of the companion and cohort from the early on in his life. Ruqaiya Begum position was very greatly in the heart of Akbar. In the heart of Akbar, she was superior and greater than any other women of his life. Akbar only loved the Ruqaiya throughout the life. Akbar was so much caring and loving towards the Ruqaiya. She was the chief wife of Akbar.
She came in the life of Akbar in her middle age.