Sons and Lovers is a novel by D.H. Lawrence that was first published in Chapter 3: The Casting off of Morel - The Taking on of William. Sons and Lovers (SparkNotes Literature Guide). Sep 8, This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between .. A standard coding form and explicit rules outlined in a coding manual that was developed for the current meta-analysis were used for Wiltshire: Wiley & Sons, Ltd; / [CrossRef] Are nature lovers happy?. A short summary of D.H. Lawrence's Sons and Lovers. The first part of the novel focuses on Mrs. Morel and her unhappy marriage to a drinking miner. She has.
The second eldest in particular, Paul, is the receiver of most of this deep emotion. Because of these feelings and the deeper-than-usual emotional bond between the two, Paul has difficulty being comfortable in his own relationships. Although there is no doubt that there is love between the two, the forces around them create tension that suppresses it.
Miriam believes herself not nearly as beautiful as she really is.
Because of this she is always looking for things to love her. Thus the relationship between the two is a struggle for an identity. The relationship is a struggle between Paul and his mother and Paul and Miriam. The main conflicts between Paul and Miriam are between physical-spiritual differences and his mother. Miriam holds spirituality very close to her. Thing with Miriam are always on a very spiritual level. Paul has other needs that Miriam herself feels that she could never fulfill. When Paul compared his two loves, it caused great tension between the two, he would begin to hate Miriam.
This tension is similar to the tension that caused William to die. Whenever William brought his lover, Lilly, around his mother, it pained him. He felt the need to belittle her constantly in comparison to his mother. He knew she did not completely approve of her.
Because of these conflicts Paul made Miriam suffer. Because he made her suffer he despised her. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. DOCX 44K Abstract Research suggests that contact with nature can be beneficial, for example leading to improvements in mood, cognition, and health. A distinct but related idea is the personality construct of subjective nature connectedness, a stable individual difference in cognitive, affective, and experiential connection with the natural environment. Subjective nature connectedness is a strong predictor of pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors that may also be positively associated with subjective well-being.
This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between nature connectedness and happiness. Those who are more connected to nature tended to experience more positive affect, vitality, and life satisfaction compared to those less connected to nature.
Sons and Lovers - Wikipedia
Publication status, year, average age, and percentage of females in the sample were not significant moderators. This research highlights the importance of considering personality when examining the psychological benefits of nature.
The results suggest that closer human-nature relationships do not have to come at the expense of happiness. Rather, this meta-analysis shows that being connected to nature and feeling happy are, in fact, connected. Termed the biophilia hypothesis by Kellert and Wilsonthis attraction to life and lifelike processes can be understood through an evolutionary perspective.
Because humans have spent almost all of our evolutionary history in the natural environment and have only migrated to urban living in relatively recent times, this attraction, identification, and need to connect to nature is thought to remain in our modern psychology Kellert and Wilson, More specifically, it would have been evolutionarily adaptive for our ancestors to be connected to nature in order to survive and thrive in their immediate environmental circumstances.
The everyday behaviors of our ancestors such as successfully finding suitable food, water, and shelter, effectively monitoring time and one's spatial location, and avoiding and reacting to predators all heavily relied on paying attention to cues in nature. Thus, individuals who were more connected to the natural world would have had a significant evolutionary advantage over those who were not as connected. To be clear, not all aspects of nature are beneficial and life supporting.
For example, Ulrich reviews instances of biophobia, or a biological preparedness to acquire fear of persistently threatening things such as snakes and spiders.
D.H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers: Summary & Analysis
Nonetheless, he argues that evidence of biophobia simultaneously suggests the viability of evolved positive responses to the natural world. Evolutionary psychology more generally suggests that modern environments are not optimally suited to minds that evolved in different more natural environments e.
Thus, the specific biophilia hypothesis is not needed to retain the more general evolutionary idea of modern gaps in optimal human-environment fit. The gap in nature exposure between our early evolutionary environments and modern life is clear, and appears to be growing.
For instance, children are spending less time playing in natural environments compared to previous generations Clements, ; Louv, ; England Marketing, and, in general, individuals from developed nations are spending almost all of their time indoors Evans and McCoy, ; MacKerron and Mourato, On a broader scale, for the first time in human history, more of the world's population now lives in urban instead of rural areas United Nations Population Division, This physical disconnection from the environments in which we evolved in may be having a detrimental impact on our emotional well-being as exposure to nature is associated with increased happiness Berman et al.
Beyond these trends, individuals vary along a continuum in their subjective connection to nature e.
This individual difference, which will be referred to as nature connectedness, can be thought of as trait-like in that it is relatively stable across time and situations Nisbet et al. Nevertheless, one's subjective connection to nature can fluctuate e. For the purposes of this paper, nature connectedness will be primarily conceptualized as a trait-like between-person difference. Consistent personality, attitudinal, behavioral, and well-being differences are found between those who strongly identify with and feel connected to the natural world compared to those who do not.
Individuals higher in nature connectedness tend to be more conscientious, extraverted, agreeable, and open Nisbet et al. Beyond personality traits, a greater connection to nature is also associated with more pro-environmental attitudes, a greater willingness to engage in sustainable actions, and increased concern about the negative impact of human behavior on the environment Mayer and Frantz, ; Leary et al.
Behaviorally, individuals higher in nature connectedness are more likely to spend time outdoors in nature and engage in a variety of pro-environmental behaviors e. Most relevant to this article, nature connectedness has also been correlated with emotional and psychological well-being e.
D.H. Lawrence's Sons and Lovers: Summary & Analysis - SchoolWorkHelper
The purpose of the current research was to examine the relationship between nature connectedness and happiness in particular by conducting a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was completed by using correlations to examine the strength of the relationship but not necessarily if one variable causes the other.
An evolutionary history where it was apparently advantageous for our ancestors to be connected to nature and present day variability in nature connectedness appear to be contradictory ideas at first glance, but multiple explanations exist for how both can co-exist. First, similar to how variability in other personality traits can be understood as being the result of cost and benefit trade-offs for fitness Nettle,so too can nature connectedness.
For example, although conscientiousness is often thought of as a desirable and beneficial personality trait e. Relatedly, there may have been ways in which being high in nature connectedness was not evolutionarily advantageous e. Taking another perspective, although we might have an innate predisposition to connect and identify with the natural world, it may be shaped by early childhood experiences and culture.
Orr raised the idea that there may be a critical period during development where one must have positive experiences in nature in order to develop biophilic beliefs, feelings, and tendencies. In addition, Kellert believed that biophilia could also be shaped by culture and experiences despite it being inborn. Supporting this, individuals who are higher in nature connectedness as adults recall spending more time in nature during their childhood compared to those who are not as connected to nature Tam, a.
In addition, researchers have found that some groups e. This research illustrates that developmental experiences and cultural context can have an influence on our evolved tendency to connect with nature. In sum, the biophilia hypothesis and individual differences in nature connectedness are not contradictory and can logically co-exist to examine and explain the human-nature relationship.
A variety of concepts and measures have been developed in order to assess the human-nature relationship, including commitment to nature Davis et al. Through the lens of interdependence theory Rusbult and Arriaga,Davis et al.
The relationship between nature connectedness and happiness: a meta-analysis
Another clearly affective nature connectedness construct is emotional affinity toward nature, which was developed by Kals et al. Inclusion of nature in self was developed by Schultz who adapted the Inclusion of Other in Self scale Aron et al. With one of its items being the Inclusion of Nature in Self scale, connectivity with nature is defined by Dutcher et al. The multidimensional construct of environmental identity, which Clayton likens to other collective identities that people have, is conceptualized as a feeling of connection to the natural environment and the belief that the environment is an important part of one's self-concept.
Despite these different concepts and measures, they all appear to be assessing slightly different expressions of the same underlying construct i. To support this, they are all highly correlated with one another and associated with other personality characteristics, measures of well-being, and environmental attitudes and behaviors in a relatively similar manner see Tam, a.