researchers have not shown similar attention to how superior-subordinate relationships . According to equity theory, a social exchange relationship is deemed. Superior-Subordinate Communication: The State of the Art superior- subordinate communication research structs from analogous theoretical founda- tions. The theoretical part discusses the factors determining and limiting the The research results indicate that high quality of relations between superiors and.
The third definition is cited after Rose who has viewed job satisfaction as a bi- dimensional concept consisting of intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction dimensions as cited in Cabrita and Perista, Intrinsic sources of satisfaction depend on the individual characteristics of the person, such as the ability to use initiative, relations with supervisors, or the work that the person actually performs; there are symbolic or qualitative facets of the job.
The research elaborated on the subject of communication and job satisfaction can be broadly divided into 2 groups. The first and largest supports the idea that communication and job satisfaction directly influence each other.
This kind of relation seems to be most obvious and was subject to scientific research the earliest. Within this group, some researchers examine internal communication as a general process happening in a company. Others focus on the managerial communication skills and behaviours.
The second group of research on the subject presents indirect relation between the two introducing additional variables among others trust, communication competence, communication satisfaction, job involvement. Two key sources of information in organizations include top management and the immediate supervisor Young and Post, In their research, Goldhaber et al. In the aggregate, this research shows that two important sources of information are top management and the immediate supervisor, and that satisfaction in communication may differ depending on the source Putti et al.
Since the turn of the century the research on communication has intensified. Goris, Vaught and Pettit studied the moderating influence of communication direction on the Job Characteristics Model. They indicated that downward communication had statistical support as both moderator and predictor of job satisfaction in low individual-job congruence situations. In Romania the survey was carried out by Firescu to determine the elements of employee work satisfaction.
The respondents replied to a series of questions regarding the elements of job satisfaction. In Poland, Zientara and Kuczynski surveyed low-ranking administrative employees in a public administration sector to check employee perceptions of HR practices and their relations with job satisfaction and commitment.Directing - Superior-Subordinate Relationship
They found out that communication together with distributive justice and teamwork has a positive and statistically significant effect on job satisfaction Zientara and Kuczynski, Some researchers focus their interest on managerial communications only, that is, on the skills and behaviour of the supervisors.
This is the manager and his communication skills that have a direct influence on employee job satisfaction. Participatory management practices balance the involvement of managers and their subordinates in information-processing, decision-making, or problem- solving. His theory triggered further research on the subject Sullivan, Undoubtedly, it would be interesting to check the application of the theory in the organizational environment in Poland.
His findings provided an association between communication, leadership and employee job and communication satisfaction Madlock, Phillipe, Helping and Koehler recognised managerial communication as important determinant of employee perception and behaviour.
Their research is valuable for recognizing managerial communication to be at the centre of employee satisfaction and identifying six areas of communication that were found to be critical to employee satisfaction. The areas are following: Other researchers go into further details concerning managerial communications. InByrne and LeMay surveyed employees from the US based offices of a high-technology sector organization.
The authors examined the use of various media with different richness lean, medium and rich. The practical applications of that study imply that information from top management is perceived as accurate, timely, and useful i. Information from direct supervisors is perceived as higher quality when delivered via a rich medium, and therefore, direct supervisors may want to consider using rich media more than lean.
Their results suggest also that how employees form perceptions of satisfaction in information may be related to the technology used to transmit the information, and not on the content of the message alone or on the qualities of the sender Byrne and LeMay, More research in this area is clearly needed. Most of the quoted research suggests generally as employees experience more positive communication relationships with their managers, they also experience more positive job outcomes such as job satisfaction.
As stated above, the direct relation between the supervisor-subordinate communication and employee job satisfaction has been proved by many studies since the s. The second group of research examining the relations between the internal communication and employee job satisfaction shows the dependence between communication and job satisfaction influenced by other variables. This relation is seen as a by-product of examining other issues connected either with supervisor-subordinate communication or employee job satisfaction.
Sollund carried out her research on mechanistic and organic forms of organizations and their influence on job satisfaction and commitment.
She suggested that the organic form of organization has assets the mechanistic type of organization lacks such as flexible forms of communicationwhich facilitates offers of promotion, and other work values which produce work satisfaction and work commitment Sollund, Zeffane researches the impact of job satisfaction on commitment at the same time proving the significance of communication climate and trust for both Zeffane, Conclusion As the article presents the recent research conducted on the subject of internal communication shows the influence of superior-subordinate communication on the employee satisfaction.
Since the notion of internal communication is a wide subject, the study on superior-subordinate communication covers a wide range of issues. The authors indicate that employee satisfaction is predicted and moderated by successful communication of the superior. Issues such as work appreciation that comes from the boss, communication feedback at the workplace or downward communication are the confirmed elements of employee job satisfaction.
However, the most important elements still remain the skills and behaviour of the supervisor: Other variables that are related to the subject are trust, communication climate and organic rather than mechanistic form of an organization.
The studies give the HR specialists the background to design successful training for leaders, as well as provide businesspeople with the information on what is needed to keep the employee satisfied. It would be undoubtedly interesting to include a qualitative component to provide a richer understanding as to the actual reasons employees attribute to perceiving their supervisor as a competent communicator. A limitation of the studies carried out so far is that they were primarily correlational studies.
This limitation only allows for associations to be made between the variables. Undoubtedly, it would be interesting to check the application of the theories in the organizational environment in Poland. Additionally, directionality would have been of value in determining which behaviours elicited the others. For example, do satisfied employees perceive their supervisors as more communicatively competent as a result of their being satisfied, or do the competent communicative behaviours of the supervisor actually account for the employee satisfaction?
For example, the suggestion that companies train supervisors to be better communicators may not necessarily cause employees to experience greater satisfaction. More research is clearly needed on the subject on how employees form their perceptions on communication satisfaction, which, as the research suggests Byrne and LeMay,may be related to the technology used to transmit the information, and not on the content of the message alone or on the qualities of the sender.
Moreover, it would be interesting to find whether the employee job satisfaction depends on the gender of a superior or a subordinate; or whether the perception of managerial communication competence depends on the gender of the superior or the subordinate.
Nonetheless, the findings of various authors do suggest that supervisors who are communicatively competent are likely to be perceived as leaders by their subordinates, which in turn may result in positive employee and organizational outcomes. Harper and Row, New York. Application, assessment, causes, and consequenc- es, Sage, London. This logic supports Kassing's contention that latent dissent results when avenues for articulating dissent become obstructed.
Subordinates in out-group relation- ships apparently view the superior-subordinate relationship as a blocked charmel for ex- pressing dissent. Consequently, as the results of the current investigation suggest, out-group members use less articulated dissent and resort to using more latent dissent i.
The current findings highlight the importance of the superior-subordinate relationship in fostering channels for hearing employee dissent. An organization's inability to facilitate this process could lead to instances of whistle-blowing Stewart, Organizations that invite criticism and scrutiny and make channels such as the superior-subordinate relation- ship available to hear such feedback could avoid costly and embarrassing cases of whistle- blowing.
Being safeguarded against whistle-blowing is not the only advantage to fostering superior-subordinate relationships that facilitate employee dissent. Receptiveness to dis- sent represents a powerful form of corrective feedback that organizations can use to monitor: These are important employee attributes that merit attention in an era characterized by the high uncertainty that accompanies corporate mergers, downsizing, and increased outsourcing.
However, there may be limits to the degree of dissent an orgaruzational system can absorb. There may be limits to the degree and nature of dissent that can be absorbed within the superior-subordinate relationship.
Exploring this idea merits attention in future research. The current research clearly supports the premise that relationships between orgaruza- tional members relate to choices employees make about expressing dissent within organiza- tions Kassing,The findings of this study suggest that superior-subordinate relationship quality relates to employee dissent.
It is also possible that coworker relation- ships contribute to employees' decisions about how to express dissent. Consider that latent dissent involves the aggressive expression of dissent to coworkers. This is possible when one's coworkers are willing to hear aggressive complaints and contradictory opinions. A member of a workgroup who does not feel his or her coworkers would tolerate expressions of dissent may choose not to engage in latent dissent expression. Thus, coworker relationships, in addition to or in lieu of superior-subordinate relationships, could contribute to the use of latent dissent.
Examination of the influence coworker relationships exert on employee dis- sent represents another possible opportunity for future research. Employee Dissent and Superior-Subordinate Relationship Quality - Page 67 The superior-subordinate dyad represents a fundamental component of organizing.
In other instances this relationship serves as a rich and intricate site of discourse where participants nurture, cultivate, and support one another.
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Communication Studies, 44, There are no right or wrong or answers.
Some of the items may sound similar, but they pertain to slightly different issues. Please respond to all items. Considering how you express your concerns at work, indicate your degree of agreement with each statement by placing the appropriate number in the blank to the left of each item. I am hesitant to raise questions or contradictory opinions in my organization. I complain about things in my organization with other employees.
I criticize inefficiency in this organization in front of everyone. I do not question management. I'm hesitant to question workplace policies. I join in when other employees complain about organizational changes.
I share my criticism of this organization openly. I make certain everyone knows when I'm unhappy with work poli- cies. I don't tell my supervisor when I disagree with workplace decisions.
I bring my criticism about organizational changes that aren't work- ing to my supervisor or someone in management. I let other employees know how I feel about the way things are done around here.
I speak with my supervisor or someone in management when I question workplace decisions.