Immune system explained - Better Health Channel
A loving, happy relationship also brings beneficial changes to your immune system, This microbial exchange is most effective in couples that kiss often, so it's a great K12 inhibit the growth of certain bacteria that contribute to bad breath Journal of Transmitted Diseases and Immunity aims to publish scientific articles in Certain types of viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi can all cause Transmission occurs when an infected person touches or exchanges body . It is the branch that explores the relationship between the immune system and genetics. The immune system is a complex network of cells and proteins that defends the . now offering SCIg therapy to eligible patients with specific immune conditions.
Women may have burning with urination, vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding between periods, or pelvic pain. Complications in women include pelvic inflammatory disease and in men include inflammation of the epididymis. If untreated gonorrhea can occasionally spread to affect joints or heart valves. Hepatitis Hepatitis is a group of diseases characterized by inflammation of the liver. Some people have no symptoms whereas others develop yellow discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes, poor appetite, vomiting, feel tired, abdominal pain, or diarrhea.
Hepatitis may be a temporary or long term condition. Acute hepatitis can sometimes resolve on its own, progress to chronic hepatitis, or rarely result in acute liver failure.
Over time the chronic form may progress to scarring of the liver, liver failure, or liver cancer Malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans a group of single-celled microorganisms belonging to the Plasmodium type. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, fatigue, vomiting, and headaches.
In severe cases it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, or death. Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten. If not properly treated, people may have recurrences of the disease months later. In those who have recently survived an infection, reinfection usually causes milder symptoms. This partial resistance disappears over months to years if the person has no continuing exposure to malaria Influenza Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Symptoms can be mild to severe. The most common symptoms include: These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. The cough, however, may last for more than two weeks.
In children, there may be nausea and vomiting, but these are not common in adults. Nausea and vomiting occur more commonly in the unrelated infection gastroenteritis, which is sometimes inaccurately referred to as "stomach flu" or "hour flu". Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure Cholera Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe. The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days. Vomiting and muscle cramps may also occur. Diarrhea can be so severe that it leads within hours to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. This may result in sunken eyes, cold skin, decreased skin elasticity, and wrinkling of the hands and feet.
The dehydration may result in the skin turning bluish. Symptoms start two hours to five days after exposure Cellular and Molecular Immunology The study of the molecular and cellular components that comprise the immune system, including their function and interaction, is the central science of immunology. This process involves a complex interplay of invading particle and defence system of the host organism along with successive cascading molecular mechanism to eliminate the invading agent Cancer immunology Cancer immunology is a branch of immunology that studies interactions between the immune system and cancer cells also called tumors or malignancies.
Immunotherapies which enhance the immune response are called as activation immunotherapies and those which reduce or suppress the immune response are called as suppression immunotherapies. Immunotherapy is of many types but the major immunotherapies for cancer include Monoclonal antibodies, Cancer vaccines and Non-specific immunotherapies.
Immunoproteomics Immunoproteomics identifies and measures the antigenic peptides or proteins. This techniques used are gel based, array based, mass spectrometry, DNA based, or in silico approaches. Immunoproteomics helps in understanding disease and disease progression, vaccine, and biomarkers.
Immunopharmacology Immunopharmacology is defined as a branch of pharmacology concerned with the application of immunological techniques and theory to the study of the effects of drugs especially on the immune system Molecular Immunology Molecular Immunology deals with immunological response at the molecular, cellular and functional levels of innate and acquired immunity. The removal of these ions gives the blood a more neutral pH, allowing hemoglobin to bind up more oxygen.
De-oxygenated blood "blue blood" coming from the pulmonary arteries, generally has an oxygen partial pressure pp of 40 mmHg and CO2 pp of 45 mmHg. Oxygenated blood leaving the lungs via the pulmonary veins has an O2 pp of mmHg and CO2 pp of 40 mmHg. It should be noted that alveolar O2 pp is mmHg, and not mmHg. The reason why pulmonary venous return blood has a lower than expected O2 pp can be explained by "Ventilation Perfusion Mismatch". Internal respiration is the exchanging of gases at the cellular level.
The Passage Way From the Trachea to the Bronchioles[ edit ] There is a point at the inferior portion of the trachea where it branches into two directions that form the right and left primary bronchus.
This point is called the Carina which is the keel-like cartilage plate at the division point. We are now at the Bronchial Tree. It is named so because it has a series of respiratory tubes that branch off into smaller and smaller tubes as they run throughout the lungs.
Right and Left Lungs[ edit ] Diagram of the lungs The Right Primary Bronchus is the first portion we come to, it then branches off into the Lobar secondary Bronchi, Segmental tertiary Bronchi, then to the Bronchioles which have little cartilage and are lined by simple cuboidal epithelium See fig.
The bronchi are lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Objects will likely lodge here at the junction of the Carina and the Right Primary Bronchus because of the vertical structure. Items have a tendency to fall in it, where as the Left Primary Bronchus has more of a curve to it which would make it hard to have things lodge there. The Left Primary Bronchus has the same setup as the right with the lobar, segmental bronchi and the bronchioles. The lungs are attached to the heart and trachea through structures that are called the roots of the lungs.
The roots of the lungs are the bronchi, pulmonary vessels, bronchial vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves. These structures enter and leave at the hilus of the lung which is "the depression in the medial surface of a lung that forms the opening through which the bronchus, blood vessels, and nerves pass" medlineplus.
Transmitted Diseases and Immunity
There are a number of terminal bronchioles connected to respiratory bronchioles which then advance into the alveolar ducts that then become alveolar sacs. Each bronchiole terminates in an elongated space enclosed by many air sacs called alveoli which are surrounded by blood capillaries. Present there as well, are Alveolar Macrophages, they ingest any microbes that reach the alveoli. The Pulmonary Alveoli are microscopic, which means they can only be seen through a microscope, membranous air sacs within the lungs.
They are units of respiration and the site of gas exchange between the respiratory and circulatory systems. Cellular Respiration[ edit ] First the oxygen must diffuse from the alveolus into the capillaries.
Human Physiology/The respiratory system
It is able to do this because the capillaries are permeable to oxygen. The other oxygen will bind to red blood cells. The red blood cells contain hemoglobin that carries oxygen. Blood with hemoglobin is able to transport 26 times more oxygen than plasma without hemoglobin.
Our bodies would have to work much harder pumping more blood to supply our cells with oxygen without the help of hemoglobin. Once it diffuses by osmosis it combines with the hemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin. Now the blood carrying oxygen is pumped through the heart to the rest of the body. Oxygen will travel in the blood into arteries, arterioles, and eventually capillaries where it will be very close to body cells.
Now with different conditions in temperature and pH warmer and more acidic than in the lungsand with pressure being exerted on the cells, the hemoglobin will give up the oxygen where it will diffuse to the cells to be used for cellular respiration, also called aerobic respiration. Cellular respiration is the process of moving energy from one chemical form glucose into another ATPsince all cells use ATP for all metabolic reactions.
It is in the mitochondria of the cells where oxygen is actually consumed and carbon dioxide produced. Oxygen is produced as it combines with hydrogen ions to form water at the end of the electron transport chain see chapter on cells. As cells take apart the carbon molecules from glucose, these get released as carbon dioxide.
Each body cell releases carbon dioxide into nearby capillaries by diffusion, because the level of carbon dioxide is higher in the body cells than in the blood. In the capillaries, some of the carbon dioxide is dissolved in plasma and some is taken by the hemoglobin, but most enters the red blood cells where it binds with water to form carbonic acid.
It travels to the capillaries surrounding the lung where a water molecule leaves, causing it to turn back into carbon dioxide. It then enters the lungs where it is exhaled into the atmosphere. Lung Capacity[ edit ] The normal volume moved in or out of the lungs during quiet breathing is called tidal volume. When we are in a relaxed state, only a small amount of air is brought in and out, about mL.
You can increase both the amount you inhale, and the amount you exhale, by breathing deeply. Breathing in very deeply is Inspiratory Reserve Volume and can increase lung volume by mL, which is quite a bit more than the tidal volume of mL. We can also increase expiration by contracting our thoracic and abdominal muscles. This is called expiratory reserve volume and is about ml of air.
Vital capacity is the total of tidal, inspiratory reserve and expiratory reserve volumes; it is called vital capacity because it is vital for life, and the more air you can move, the better off you are.
There are a number of illnesses that we will discuss later in the chapter that decrease vital capacity. Vital Capacity can vary a little depending on how much we can increase inspiration by expanding our chest and lungs. Some air that we breathe never even reaches the lungs!
Instead it fills our nasal cavities, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. These passages aren't used in gas exchange so they are considered to be dead air space. To make sure that the inhaled air gets to the lungs, we need to breathe slowly and deeply. Even when we exhale deeply some air is still in the lungs, about ml and is called residual volume.
This air isn't useful for gas exchange. There are certain types of diseases of the lung where residual volume builds up because the person cannot fully empty the lungs. This means that the vital capacity is also reduced because their lungs are filled with useless air.
Stimulation of Breathing[ edit ] There are two pathways of motor neuron stimulation of the respiratory muscles. The first is the control of voluntary breathing by the cerebral cortex. The second is involuntary breathing controlled by the medulla oblongata. There are chemoreceptors in the aorta, the carotid body of carotid arteries, and in the medulla oblongata of the brainstem that are sensitive to pH.
As carbon dioxide levels increase there is a buildup of carbonic acid, which releases hydrogen ions and lowers pH. Thus, the chemoreceptors do not respond to changes in oxygen levels which actually change much more slowlybut to pH, which is dependent upon plasma carbon dioxide levels. In other words, CO2 is the driving force for breathing. The receptors in the aorta and the carotid sinus initiate a reflex that immediately stimulates breathing rate and the receptors in the medulla stimulate a sustained increase in breathing until blood pH returns to normal.
This response can be experienced by running a meter dash. It produces the white blood cells called T-lymphocytes. The body's other defences against microbes As well as the immune system, the body has several other ways to defend itself against microbes, including: The constant flushing of the urinary tract and the bowel also helps.
Fever is an immune system response A rise in body temperature, or fevercan happen with some infections. This is actually an immune system response.
A rise in temperature can kill some microbes. Fever also triggers the body's repair process. Common disorders of the immune system It is common for people to have an over- or underactive immune system. Overactivity of the immune system can take many forms, including: Allergic diseases are very common. They include allergies to foods, medications or stinging insects, anaphylaxis life-threatening allergyhay fever allergic rhinitissinus disease, asthma, hives urticariadermatitis and eczema autoimmune diseases - where the immune system mounts a response against normal components of the body.
Autoimmune diseases range from common to rare. They include multiple sclerosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic vasculitis. Underactivity of the immune system, also called immunodeficiency, can: An underactive immune system does not function correctly and makes people vulnerable to infections.
It can be life threatening in severe cases. People who have had an organ transplant need immunosuppression treatment to prevent the body from attacking the transplanted organ.
Immunoglobulin therapy Immunoglobulins commonly known as antibodies are used to treat people who are unable to make enough of their own, or whose antibodies do not work properly. This treatment is known as immunoglobulin therapy.