Gr 9 – Ch 4 Collective Rights Notes – the Rucksack
Section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the section of the Constitution of Section 23(1)(b), or section 23 as a whole, are also known as the "Canada clause. decreased enrollment in English-language education in rural Quebec, as well as challenges from both francophone and anglophone minority. To what extent does the Charter meet the needs of Francophones in Quebec? To what extent should the Federal and Provincial Governments support and. The Charter of the French Language also known as Bill is a law in the province of Quebec in Canada defining French, the language of the majority of the population, as the official language of the provincial government. It is the central legislative piece in Quebec's language policy. The fundamental French language rights in Quebec are.
Language of instruction[ edit ] Further information: Education in Quebec The language of instruction from kindergarten to secondary school is French.
The instruction language is the language in which the classes are taught. Learning of English as a second language is mandatory for all children attending French school beginning in elementary school.
Articles 87, 88 and 89 provide for the use of Amerindic languages and Inuktitut as language of instruction. The rate of introduction of French and English as languages of instruction is left to school committees and parents' committees.
The original Charter provided for the English instruction not on the basis of a parent having received his instruction in English in Canada, but in Quebec only. This came to be amended following the adoption of the Constitution Actwhich defined the educational right of French and English minorities in all provinces under section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The office also objects to the sale of "grilled cheese sandwiches", insisting that they be called sandwich de fromage fondue, which literally translates to "melted cheese sandwich".
French Language in Canada
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Main article: Legal dispute over Quebec's language policy Language in Canada is defined federally by the Official Languages Act since and is part of the Constitution of Canada since Parts of the Charter of the French language have been amended in response to rulings by Quebec Courts which were upheld by the Supreme Court of Canada.
Beforethe only part of the Charter of the French Language that could be challenged constitutionally was that of the language of legislation and the courts. Inthe patriation of the Canadian constitution occurred as the British Parliament passed the Canada Act This act enacted the Constitution Act, for Canada including the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms ; section 23 introduced the notion of "minority-language education rights". This opened another door to a constitutional dispute of Quebec's Charter of the French Language.
Alliance Quebecan anglophone rights lobby group, was founded in May It is mainly through this civil association that a number of lawyers have challenged the constitutionality of Quebec's territorial language policy. The Charter was criticised by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeauwho called Bourassa's Bill 22 as a "slap in the face", in his memoirs,[ which? Except for New Brunswick, most other provinces that accepted Trudeau's bilingualism initiative never fully implemented it.
The most notable case was Ontariowhere Premier Bill Davis did not grant full official status to the French language, despite the fact that the infrastructure was already in place.
Charter of the French Language
Legislative initiatives prior to Bill were often perceived by francophones as insufficient,[ clarification needed ] such as An Act to promote the French language in Quebec Bill After Bourassa passed the Official Language Actopponents turned their support to the Union Nationale in the election, but despite that short resurgence of support, the party collapsed in the subsequent election.
Court challenges have been more successful: Many of the key provisions of the initial language legislation having been rewritten to comply with rulings. Despite compliance since of the Charter with the Canadian constitution, opposition to the Charter and the government body enforcing it has continued.
According to Statistics Canada, up toEnglish-speaking people have emigrated from Quebec to other provinces since the s; those in Quebec whose sole native language was English dropped fromin toinwhen they accounted for 7. These school closures may also have been brought about by restrictions on who can attend English schools, which has been another ongoing drain on the English school system.
Of the Anglophones between 25 and 44 years old who left the province between andindividuals, which was half of this group, had university degrees. The province's unemployment rate rose from 8. On the other hand, Toronto's advantage had been growing since the s and had become apparent in the s, and is also related to the greater importance of the United States, rather than Britain, in Canada's economy.
It can also be said that this movement led to a larger role for Quebec Inc. Marie was a series of symbolic but divisive resolutions by some municipalities outside Quebec declaring their towns unilingually English in protest of what they saw as an infringement on the rights embodied in the charter. It is often believed[ by whom? It should be noted that the Supreme Court in their ruling regarding the signs case which led to the use of the notwithstanding clause, ruled that in fact any sign law was a violation of the freedom of expression right.
Aside from the civil rights infringement, the Charter has faced legal challenges because the restricted education opportunities have hindered not only unilingual but bilingual anglophones' employment. Despite nearly 30 years of the Charter, it has never been applied as rigorously as intended because to do so would violate civil liberties.
English is still often made a requirement by employers in Montreal, including many French-Canadian owned ones, and, to a lesser extent, in Gatineau and Quebec City, with the workforce in Montreal remaining largely bilingual despite the Charter. Introduced by Zbigniew Brzezinski an anglophone who had once lived in Montreal former U.
President Jimmy Carter's National Security adviser, the essay compared the language of instruction provisions of the charter with South African apartheid statutes and jurisprudence. Quebec Attorney Generalbelieving that it conflicted with section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
The criteria used by Quebec to determine if parents are entitled to have their children instructed in English are the same as those found under section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. In Canada and abroad, the linguistic policy of Quebec is too often negatively perceived. The business community and the media in particular know it very little. For their part, the Americans remain opposed to a legislation that appears to them to reduce individual liberties and limit the use of English.
Although there is a growing tendency to refer to the French spoken in these communities in terms of these new identities Ontario French, Manitoba French, etc. Another kind of innovation has consisted in giving existing words additional meanings that they did not have in Europe.
Words such as voyageage travellingbousculage jostlingpeinturage paintinggardiennage babysitting and magasinage shopping illustrate this process. Do you want any? These studies have revealed major differences according to the age and social origins of the individuals speaking and the situations in which they are doing so.
Analogous differences can be found in written French, though they are not so marked as in oral French. Given the particularly charged symbolism that words borrowed from English can have in French-speaking Canada, they are often targeted by language planning agencies, which try to promote their replacement with equivalent French terms.
The most recent of these works, the Usito dictionarydiffers from its predecessors in that it was developed from a large-scale database of written and oral language. Anglicization and language attrition involve the use of turns of phrase that betray the influence of English or an imperfect mastery of the complexities and irregularities of French, indicating that French is no longer the main language of communication and is losing ground to English. The reason for standardization is that in communities where francophones are in the minority, francophone parents who do not speak French with their children at home rely on French-language schools to teach it to them.
As is only right, the schools train their students to use the standard register. Acadian French The current Acadian population of Canada is descended from the inhabitants of Acadia who returned to Canada after the deportation or who escaped it by taking refuge in remote parts of the colony. New Brunswick is where the Acadian francophone population is most vital and Acadian francophone institutions are the strongest.
It is also the Atlantic province where government support for French is greatest and is guaranteed by the provincial constitution New Brunswick is the only officially bilingual province in Canada. In the three other Atlantic provinces, only about half of all people who have French as their mother tongue also have it as the language that they speak most often at home, and provincial government support for French does not go far beyond the education system.
Other examples include the use of bailler instead of donner to givethe use of ne One reason that Acadian French is so conservative is that Acadia was cut off from France quite early on inand even during the preceding French colonial period, contacts with people from France, including colonial administrators, were fairly limited.
Corpuses of oral language gathered in various parts of the vast area where Acadians now live show that Acadian French varies from one region to another. For example, within New Brunswick and Nova Scotia respectively, linguistics scholar Karin Flikeid found considerable variation in the ways that the nasal vowels of French are pronounced. For example, in the latter region, the archaic verb endings mentioned earlier are almost non-existent.
There are also some differences in how English has influenced the development of Acadian French. This influence is far weaker in cities and regions where francophones are in the majority for example, in northeastern New Brunswick than in those where they are in the minority as in the southeastern New Brunswick city of Moncton and in Nova Scotia.
In these latter communities, francophones use a register that involves borrowing many terms from English and incorporating them into utterances in traditional Acadian French.
This mode of expression, especially vivid in the younger generations, is commonly referred to as chiac and is probably used mostly for communicating with other members of the communities where it is spoken, rather than with francophones from elsewhere. Although chiac is disparaged by some members of the Acadian elite, it does convey a certain dimension of Acadian identity that is valued by authors such as Dano Leblanc and France Daigle and singers such as Lisa LeBlanc, who use it in their literary and musical creations.
Linguists are currently studying the place of chiac in the communicative repertoire of its users, as well as its acceptability for communicating with francophones who do not come from the communities where it is used.
As a result of these unions, Aboriginal people appropriated French, which supplanted the Aboriginal languages that mothers had originally passed on to their children. The wave of immigration from Europe occurred in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and was stimulated mainly by the agricultural land that was still available then in these three provinces. For linguists, what makes these communities interesting is that they offer a chance to study the development of French in situations where different dialects are in contact.
Although a limited amount of in-depth research that has been done on this subject, studies by Robert Papen and Anne-Sophie Marchand show that in those western Canadian communities where francophones with European backgrounds form a sizeable contingent, their French is not completely aligned with Canadian French and preserves several usages typical of the French of their ancestors.
Charter of the French Language - Wikipedia
Most likely, part of the explanation for the continued heterogeneity of the French dialects spoken in these mixed communities is that these two groups of francophones began to live together only relatively recently. The issues involved in the evolution of French in Madawaska are similar to those in the mixed francophone communities of Manitoba and Saskatchewan discussed in the preceding section.
An effort should be made to investigate these phenomena of dialect mixing further, with a contemporary corpus, and to relate them to the sense of identity of the francophones in this region, which seems to have grown more Acadian in recent years. Research on the French-language skills of anglophone students who have just graduated from bilingual education programs has shown that although these students have a far better mastery of French than those who have studied French as an academic subject, their skills are still inferior to those of francophones their age.
Section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Wikipedia
They understand French better than they speak or write it, and they make mistakes mainly in manipulating the elements of grammar and vocabulary. This same study also showed that the French of these anglophones has a certain local flavour. In contrast, in Torontoa large city whose francophone community is multiethnic and represents only 1.
According to the census, the Canadian population included 6, people who were born abroad; out of this total, Until now, the French spoken by immigrants to Canada, whether francophone or not, has received little attention from linguists. In a study of the speech of immigrants from France who were living in Toronto, Gilles Forlot found that their French diverged from the French of their mother country in some respects that were attributable more to the influence of English or to language attrition than to their having adopted any traits of Canadian French.