Women in Ancient Israel and the Hebrew Bible - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion
The texts that became the Hebrew Bible were composed by scribes. Try writing out a few printed pages longhand and see how many errors you make! Eastern treaties derive from the Hittites of the early to mid-second millennium B.C.E. and the Neo-Assyrians, . HarperCollins Dictionary . besides me there is no god. Israel Forum. Middle East; Israel; Israel Travel Forum . Na'im me'od -- pleased to meet you Interesting to see how in Hebrew, too, the meaning is reversed. Jewish humor is the long tradition of humor in Judaism dating back to the Torah and the Midrash from the ancient Middle . The next day, one Rabbi was surprised to see the other walking into the shul for "Let me have some", he requested. (Yiddish: כעלעם, Hebrew: חלם; often transcribed as Helm) as well- meaning fools.
Note in this regard Judges Indeed, important to note here is that although the sanctuary at Shiloh is served by a resident priestly family Eli and his sons, Hophni and Phinehasno priest is said to be present in the 1 Samuel 1: That is, Shiloh seems not to have a highly bureaucratized and institutionalized priesthood that takes responsibility for, especially, the altar-related aspects of sacrificial ritual.
Other regional sanctuaries also seem to operate independent of an institutionalized priesthood and so independent of the constraints on nonpriestly religious agents including women that an institutionalized priesthood can impose. For example, 2 Kings Even in the 7th and early 6th centuries bce, this situation may have persisted. According to Ezekiel Household Shrines Household shrines can be defined as small-scale worship spaces that stood within individual Israelite homes or within multi-building household compounds.
According to many commentators, we are to interpret this as an idolatrous act. After all, to make a religious figurine is something generally prohibited by biblical law. The figurine, moreover, is often regarded by commentators as tainted because it was cast from silver Micah had stolen from his mother and had only returned when threatened by her curse of the unknown thief.
Yahweh is, after all, the only deity mentioned in both the Judges Also, the mother is explicitly depicted as a Yahweh worshipper. She utters a blessing in the name of Yahweh in Judges This is significant because in the Hebrew Bible, mothers are more often said to name their children than fathers. Indeed, teraphim texts elsewhere in the Bible—especially Genesis This is particularly indicated in Jeremiah 7: In a space that archaeologists have identified as a dedicated shrine room from early 12th- through midth-century bce Ai, for example, there was found a tall, cylindrically shaped clay stand with fenestrated sides, which seems designed for burning aromatic plant materials these materials would have been burned within the cylinder, with smoke issuing forth from the fenestrations.
Grain and similar foodstuff offerings would have been set in a bowl placed atop the stand. A channel in the floor in front of the bench on which the cylindrically shaped stand stood was presumably for draining away libation offerings.
This brings us to a third crucial point: Moreover, it is women alone who speak of making libation and incense offerings and cakes for the Queen of Heaven in Jeremiah Also, in Jeremiah These obligations regarding grain and bread distribution, as Carol Meyers has argued, might reasonably be expected to carry beyond the familial sphere and into the supernatural 43 —as indeed was the case in the story of Hannah discussed earlier, where Hannah, in 1 Samuel 1: Alternatively, they could apportion these offerings to other household members for these household residents to use in their own devotions.
Magicians In addition to being able to act as ritual agents in regional sanctuaries and, especially, household shrines, Israelite women could sometimes assume more official roles as religious functionaries. We have already seen, for example, that midwives served as medico-magical specialists, and biblical tradition elsewhere identifies other women as magical experts.
Three biblical texts, for example—Leviticus The Hittite documents also required the vassal to read its text. Understanding ancient Near Eastern treaties illuminates many passages in the Bible. The most striking example is the book of Deuteronomy, which shows features of both the Hittite and Neo-Assyrian texts. Like those treaties, the heart of Deuteronomy is the stipulations laws in chapters A historical prologue precedes the stipulations Deutand a section of blessings follows them Deut The curses, as in the Neo-Assyrian texts, are very extensive Deut Like the Neo-Assyrian loyalty oaths, Yahweh, the suzerain, makes his covenant with the entire vassal population, Israel see Deut Finally, when Moses exhorts the Israelites to love Yahweh with all their heart, soul, mind, and strength Deut 6: This unique adaptation was probably quite subversive.
Is the god of the Hebrew Bible unlike the other ancient Near Eastern gods? The Bible generally conceives of Yahweh in anthropomorphic terms—that is, with human form see Exod Also, Yahweh lived in a big house a templewith servants priests to care for his needs sacrifices.
This is all very much in line with the rest of the ancient Near East. However, unlike other ancient Near Eastern peoples, who crafted images of their gods, the Hebrew Bible generally denigrates divine images see Exod Also, in contrast to the unabashed polytheism of other ancient Near Eastern cultures, the biblical texts focus on only one god.
Of course, the Hebrew Bible was written over a long period of time, and it reflects changing ideas, even about Yahweh. Thus, many biblical texts are henotheisticthat is, they see Yahweh as the most important god among various other gods that existed see Deut 4: Only a few biblical texts are explicitly monotheistic Isa People are very similar in all cultures by virtue of their shared humanity.
But each culture develops some distinctive features that make it unique. I'm a—freezing cold as vell! Jewish mothers"cheapness", hypochondria, and other stereotyped habits are all common subjects.
Frugality has been frequently singled out: An old Jewish beggar was out on the street in New York City with his tin cup. It costs at least a dollar! Any money that falls outside the circle is for the Lord, and the money that falls inside the circle is for me.
I take the offering, throw it up into the air, and pray: There's a fork in the sugar bowl. Or, A Buddhist monk goes to a barber to have his head shaved. And what do you know, the next day the barber comes to open his shop, and finds on his doorstep a dozen gemstones. That day, a priest comes in to have his hair cut. That day, Rabbi Finklestein comes in to get his payoss [sideburns] trimmed. Or, A Jewish man lies on his deathbed, surrounded by his children. She says it's for the shiva. A boy comes home from school and tells his mother he got a part in the school play.
Frowning, the mother says, "Go back and tell them you want a speaking role! He's just like papa. He looks like him. He acts like him. Oy vey, mama hates him! Or, on parenting from David Bader 's Haikus for Jews: Is one Nobel Prize so much to ask from a child after all I've done?
A Frenchman, a German and a Jew walk into a bar.
Women in Ancient Israel and the Hebrew Bible
The doctor says "What's wrong? Is it the food? Finally, another passenger gets a cup of water from the drinking fountain and gives it to the old man, who thanks him profusely and gulps it down. Feeling satisfied, the other passenger sits down again, only to hear "Oy, was I thirsty; oy, was I thirsty". A version of that joke is quoted in Born To Kvetch: Yiddish Language and Culture in All Its Moods, by Michael Wexwho writes, "It contains virtually every important element of the Yiddish-speaking mind-set in easily accessible form: Often they start with something like "A rabbi and a priest A rabbi and a Catholic priest are having lunch in a restaurant.
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The priest attacks his lunch, savoring every bite of the ham. Noticing the rabbi eyeing him, he asks, "So tell me, Rabbi Goldblum, have you ever had any pork before?
We're both men of God here. We can tell each other our sins. The rabbi asks the priest: Therefore, it must be a sin not to use it, don't you think? So, will you finally eat some pork? A rabbi once asked his old friend, a priest, "Could you ever be promoted within your Church? The Rabbi asks his friend to find him a Catholic priest, so that he might convert.
Confused, his friend asks, "Rabbi, why? You have been a great teacher and leader of your followers, and you have led a good and honorable Jewish life. Why would you want to become a Catholic now, before you die?
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This joke is also seen with an Irish Catholic replacing the Rabbi, and a Protestant minister replacing the Catholic priest.
Or, A rabbi, a minister, and a priest were playing poker when the police raided the game. Turning to the priest, the lead police officer said, "Father Murphy, were you gambling?
But the dream, and the noise, was so terrific that I woke up. Last night, I dreamed of the Protestant Heaven. It was a nice, proper suburb, with neatly trimmed lawns, and houses all neatly lined up. Not wanting to leave the confessional unattended, he asks his friend, a rabbi from the synagogue across the street, if he can fill in for him. The rabbi says he wouldn't know what to do, so the priest agrees to stay with him for a few minutes and show him the ropes.
They enter their half of the confessional together and soon enough, a woman enters and says, "Father forgive me, for I have sinned. The woman leaves and not long after a man enters and says, "Father forgive me, for I have sinned. The rabbi tells the priest he thinks he's got it figured out now, so the priest leaves, and the rabbi waits until another woman enters the confessional, who says, "Father forgive me, for I have sinned.
The Jews did not want to leave, and so the Pope challenged them to a disputation to prove that they could remain. No one, however, wanted the responsibility As there was nobody else who wanted to go, Moishe was given the task.
But because he knew only Hebrew, a silent debate was agreed. The day of the debate came, and they went to St. Peter's Square to sort out the decision. First the Pope waved his hand around his head.
Moishe pointed firmly at the ground.
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The Pope, in some surprise, held up three fingers. In response, Moishe gave him the middle finger. The crowd started to complain, but the Pope thoughtfully waved them to be quiet.
He took out a bottle of wine and a wafer, holding them up. Moishe took out an apple, and held it up. This man is too good. The Jews can stay. He explained, "First, I showed him the Heavens, to show that God is everywhere. He pointed at the ground to signify that God is right here with us.