Devil in Christianity - Wikipedia
The first Fight describ'd: Satan and his Powers retire under Night: He calls a Councel, invents devilish Engines, which in the second dayes Fight put Michael ALL night the dreadless Angel unpursu'd . A third part of the Gods, in Synod met. 6. Beelzebub urges Satan to speak to the fallen angels  C. Satan rallies his troops  1. Satan calls them Part engage in sport, song, and philosophy  2. Satan meets Sin and Death at the gate of Hell [ ]. A summary of Scenes 5–6 in Christopher Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. The good and evil angels make another appearance, with the good one again urging.
However the above views remained very much a minority. Daniel Defoe in his The Political History of the Devil describes such views as a form of "practical atheism ".
Defoe wrote "that to believe the existence of a God is a debt to nature, and to believe the existence of the Devil is a like debt to reason".
John Milton in Paradise Lost[ edit ] Until John Milton created the character of Satan for his Paradise Lostthe different attributes of Satan were usually ascribed to different entities. The angel who rebelled in Heaven was not the same as the ruler in Hell.
The ruler of Hell was often seen as a sort of jailer who never fell from grace. The tempting serpent of Genesis was just a serpent.
Milton combined the different parts of the character to show his fall from near-divine beauty and grace to his eventual skulking role as a jealous tempter.
Don't argue with the Devil - he's much more intelligent than us, says Pope Francis
He was so successful in his characterization of Satan as a romantic hero who "would rather rule in Hell than serve in Heaven" that his version of Satan has displaced all others. Rudolf Bultmann and modernists[ edit ] Rudolf Bultmann taught that Christians need to reject belief in a literal devil as part of first century culture. In Lucifer, the Devil in the Middle Ages, the third volume of his five volume history of the devil,  Russell argues that such theologians [as Bultmann, unnamed] are missing that the devil is part and parcel of the New Testament from its origins.
Modern Christian doctrines by denomination[ edit ] Roman Catholic views[ edit ] Luca Giordano 's painting of Archangel Michael and Fallen AngelsViennaA number of prayers and practices against the devil exist within the Roman Catholic tradition. The Prayer to Saint Michael specifically asks for Catholics to be defended "against the wickedness and snares of the devil. Michael the Archangel who defeats the devil in the War in Heaven. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states that: The evil that surrounds us today, the disorders that plague our society, man's inconsistency and brokenness, are not only the results of original sin, but also the result of Satan's pervasive and dark action.
Although he was an angel, and thus pure spirit, he is considered a creature nonetheless. Satan's actions are permitted by divine providence. Evangelicals emphasize the power and involvement of Satan in history in varying degrees; some virtually ignore Satan and others revel in speculation about spiritual warfare against that personal power of darkness.
Paradise Lost: Book 6
Unitarians and Christadelphians[ edit ] Some Christian groups and individuals view the devil in Christianity figuratively. They see the devil in the Bible as representing human sin and temptation, and any human system in opposition to God. Early Bible fundamentalist Unitarians and Dissenters like Nathaniel LardnerRichard MeadHugh FarmerWilliam Ashdowne and John Simpsonand John Epps taught that the miraculous healings of the Bible were real, but that the devil was an allegoryand demons just the medical language of the day.
Simpson in his Sermons publ. Constructing a Trinitarian Warfare Theodicy. Such views today are taught today by Christadelphians  and the Church of the Blessed Hope. Jehovah's Witnesses beliefs and Eschatology of Jehovah's Witnesses Jehovah's Witnesses believe that Satan was originally a perfect angel who developed feelings of self-importance and craved worship that belonged to God. Satan persuaded Adam and Eve to obey him rather than God, raising the issue—often referred to as a "controversy"—of whether people, having been granted free willwould obey God under both temptation and persecution.
The issue is said to be whether God can rightfully claim to be sovereign of the universe. Satan and his demons are said to have been cast down from heaven to the earth inmarking the beginning of the " last days ".
At Armageddon, Satan is to be bound for 1, years, and then given a brief opportunity to mislead perfect humanity before being destroyed.
Devil in Christianity
Latter Day Saint movement In Mormonismthe Devil is a real being, a literal spirit son of God who once had angelic authority, but rebelled and fell prior to the creation of the Earth in a premortal life. However, though the Bible mentions a trumpet blast preceding the resurrection of the dead, it never specifies Gabriel as the trumpeter. Different passages state different things: In Judaism, trumpets are prominent, and they seem to be blown by God himself, or sometimes Michael.
In Zoroastrianismthere is no trumpeter at the last judgement. In Islamic tradition, it is Israfil who blows the trumpet, though he is not named in the Qur'an. The Christian Church Fathers do not mention Gabriel as the trumpeter; early English literature similarly does not. He ended, and the Son gave signal high To the bright minister that watch'd, he blew His trumpet, heard in Oreb since perhaps When God descended, and perhaps once more To sound at general doom.
Later, Gabriel's horn is omnipresent in Negro spirituals, but it is unclear how the Byzantine conception inspired Milton and the spirituals, though they presumably have a common source. Icon of Gabriel, Byzantineca.
Pope blames devil for Church divisions, scandals, seeks angel's help
Writer Elizabeth Drayson mentions the feast being celebrated in March 18 the year of in her book: Drayson, Elizabeth January 13, The Lead Books of Granada. Palgrave Macmillan - edition. One of the oldest out of print sources pronouncing the feast for 18 March, was first published in and has the name "Flos sanctorum: In the day was officially transferred to 29 September for celebration in conjunction with the feast of St.
The Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite celebrate his feast day on 8 November for those churches that follow the traditional Julian Calendar8 November currently falls on 21 November of the modern Gregorian Calendara difference of 13 days.
Eastern Orthodox commemorate him, not only on his November feast, but also on two other days: The feast was first established on Mount Athos when, in the 9th century, during the reign of Emperor Basil II and the Empress Constantina Porphyrogenitus and while Nicholas Chrysoverges was Patriarch of Constantinoplethe Archangel appeared in a cell  near Karyeswhere he wrote with his finger on a stone tablet the hymn to the Theotokos" It is truly meet