"Due to the complexity of the relationship between race, ethnicity and crime and . As we discuss later in this section of the report, social exclusion increases the we spoke to described the powerful negative effect of exclusion on self esteem: . Racial discrimination refers to discrimination against individuals on the basis of their race. Policies of racial segregation may formalize it, but it is also often. correlation of the race of the seated jury and conviction rates would suggest. These findings and defense attorneys are able to exclude a sizable number of potential .. Stevenson and Friedman () describe the trial of Albert. Jefferson in.
Racial discrimination - Wikipedia
Furthermore, future programs and research need to be holistic and account for the intersecting and compounding factors re- Page 6 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Finally, La Vigne, stressed, more research should include the perspectives of people who have experienced incarceration or who have felony records.
Currently, 30 states and cities and counties have such policies for public employers; 10 states and 31 local jurisdictions have such policies for private employers.
Proponents of Ban the Box policies have also hoped that the policies would reduce racial disparities in employment. Despite its intentions, Ban the Box has had a number of unintended consequences, Agan explained. First, employers appear to be trying to work around the policy, consciously or unconsciously, by guessing from applications whether an applicant may have a criminal record based on observable characteristics, such as race or age.
Although this type of discrimination based on stereotyping is illegal, it still appears to be occurring, as shown in a study by Agan and a colleague. They analyzed callbacks from 15, fictitious applications to entry-level low-skill jobs sent before and after Ban the Box policies went into effect in New Jersey and New York.
All of the applicants were young and male, but they randomly assigned a black-indicating or white-indicating name and felony conviction. Ban the Box led to a small increase in callbacks for black men with records, a much larger increase in callbacks for white men with records, but a significant decrease in callbacks for black men without records.
That is, Ban the Box increased racial disparities: Agan noted that other studies have found similar effects relating to Hispanic males and to eventual employment. Moreover, other research has found decreases or no change in employment for people with records after Ban the Box went into effect.
There is no easy fix to the complex issue of employment for people with criminal records. Despite these effects, some advocates continue to call for Ban the Box policies, but Agan said that she believes that additional or alternative policies may be needed to achieve the desired goals.
Other advocates have reacted by calling for more enforcement of existing antidiscrimination laws, though how to achieve this is not clear. Experiences of Women Andrea James National Council for Incarcerated and Formerly Incarcerated Women and Girls shared her experiences and perspectives as a former inmate and current advocate. While imprisoned for 2 years, she was moved by the women around her, who were faced with such difficult money choices as purchasing hygiene products or calling their children.
Ultimately, James began working as a teacher while in prison, and, with her fellow inmates, began organizing.
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Today, as a national organization with thousands of participants, the National Council for Incarcerated and Formerly Incarcerated Women and Girls seeks to have the voices of women included in conversations about how to change the criminal justice system. It seeks alternatives to policies that focus on criminalizing and imprisoning people, instead of addressing the underlying needs of people and their communities. Effects on Immigrant Communities The criminal justice system affects immigrants, especially illegal immigrants, in unique ways, explained Amada Armenta University of Pennsylvania.
In her view, many of the exclusionary consequences of the criminal justice system are not unintended, and addressing this problem requires more than incremental or marginal changes. Armenta studied policing in Nashville, Tennessee, where police used traffic enforcement as a central way to increase arrests of people with outstanding warrants and to look for potentially illegal drugs or weapons.
This approach and its consequences made it difficult for local police to avoid participating in immigration enforcement systems. Armenta noted that criminal justice proceedings are different and the consequences often harsher for immigrants than for citizens. Undocumented immigrants are often held at the request of the federal government without bail, and they may be detained by immigration and customs enforcement without due process. She said that immigration enforcement actions are associated with negative opinions of police, as well as negative health outcomes, such as chronic stress and increased rates of preterm and low-weight births, not only among undocumented immigrants, but also among legal permanent residents and citizens of Latino descent.
Moderator Reginald Dwayne Betts lawyer, poet, memoirist challenged the group to consider what it means to characterize schools as places where behavior is criminalized and how to expand forms of data to include the voices of youth and young adults. He also stressed the need for frank conversations about violence and its implications for youth and young adults in the criminal justice system.
School Exclusion Aaron Kupchik University of Delaware discussed the effects of school exclusion on youth. Schools are important in the context of criminal justice because schools are where people first encounter nonfamilial authority, where they learn about their roles as citizens, and in some schools where they may encounter police on a daily basis.
And schools have increased criminalization of school discipline, characterized by zero-tolerance policies and more suspensions for less severe infractions. Kupchik noted that even though overall victimization in schools has decreased dramatically, a trend that mirrors the decline of juvenile crime outside of school over the past 25 years, the links between schools and the criminal justice system are increasing.
Eighty-one percent of all schools have surveillance cameras, drug-sniffing police dogs are used in 62 percent of high schools, and many schools have metal detectors. More schools today have school resource police officers than previously, despite a lack of evidence that they deter crime or protect students.
But their presence is associated with increasing arrests of students, especially for simple assault and nonserious school offenses. Overall, minor offenses lead to more suspensions than they did a generation ago, and suspensions are associated with future arrests, risk of school failure, dropping out, not being accepted to college, and civic disengagement.
Black students disproportionately experience school exclusion, stated Kupchik. They face higher rates of discipline, suspensions, and arrests from school. The disparity is especially stark for black girls, who are suspended at six times the rate of white girls.
This may be the product of racial bias: She noted that even though there is little evidence of greater behavior problems for black students than white students, they are suspended at far higher rates, starting as early as preschool, and for more reasons that are discretionary.
Increasingly, data show that students are more likely to be seen as disruptive and to be punished on the basis of their sexual orientation, poverty status, gender, disability status, and immigration status. Kupchik said that preventing school exclusion involves clear rules and communication, and consequences that build rather than disrupt communities.
Seeing children as children, rather than as threats, and helping to deal with the root causes of misbehavior also leads to better outcomes. Developing policies that limit what offenses lead to school arrests and positive behavioral interventions have proven successful in limiting racial disparities. Page 8 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Many jurisdictions are changing how they address the crimes of people transitioning from adolescence to adulthood. Since the late s, people have recognized children as not being adults, but the precise age at which they have been considered adults has varied.
Recent research on adolescent development has illuminated the cognitive and psychological markers of this phase, which extends through the mids, but many states are still considering whether and how the criminal justice system should recognize this developmental period.
Generally speaking, Chester said, youth under 18 are treated in the juvenile system, which has the goal of rehabilitation; youth over 18 are treated as adults, with no distinction made between people of very different ages and with more of a focus on deterrence and retribution than rehabilitation. Although young adults comprise 10 percent of the U.
The racial disparities within this age group are troubling and greater than those for juveniles. Young adults are also especially hard hit by the drug crisis because of their risk-taking behavior and self-medication for mental health problems.
Drug abuse violations peak during this period, even as their other criminal behaviors are decreasing. Moreover, young adults can face particular challenges after incarceration because they are less well established than older adults, who may have a pre-incarceration work history, their own housing, or an established family.
She suggested that other countries, such as Germany, may provide a positive model for future reforms efforts in the United States because they are more oriented toward success after imprisonment.
Chester also noted that the young adult population includes many with special needs. Homeless young adults are particularly vulnerable, and their numbers and needs are not well understood.
Homeless young women are at high risk for sexual abuse. She reported that multiple efforts are under way to address the needs of young adults given their vulnerability and poor outcomes, including specialized courts, caseloads, or correctional facilities. In some jurisdictions, legal provisions for young adults, such as differing parole terms or expanding the juvenile justice system to include emerging adults, are being implemented.
Marlon Peterson executive producer, Decarcerated Podcast described the importance of understanding the point of view of young adults of color who experience social exclusion through the criminal justice system. Informed by his experiences as a violence interrupter, a creator of programming inside of prison, and as someone who was formerly incarcerated, he now examines issues of violence and incarceration around the world.
He challenged the group to understand the impact of both physical and emotional violence and oppression inherent in the criminal justice system. When communities of color are criminalized through policies, he said, sometimes young people, who lack effective ways to cope, respond through violence. Many young people of color are feeling unheard and experiencing a feeling of a broken spirit. He challenged the group to consider the long-term relational impacts of concentrated criminalization of people of color, the future of research, and the interpersonal effects of bias on youth and young adults of color.
Latino Youth Vera Lopez Arizona State University focused on the experiences of Latino youth, highlighting three key areas of social exclusion. First, Latinos have been ignored in the criminal justice literature, in part because ethnicity and race have often been conflated. The result is that the true extent of crime among Latino youth is not well understood. In addition, departments and agencies use many different methods to collect ethnicity data, including assumptions based on appearance, and they lack specificity that accounts for how Latino people identify themselves.
Only recently have there been initiatives to gather better data at the state and local level to understand problems that may exist. New reports that do examine the experiences of Latino youth show some interesting trends and disparities.
Interestingly, Latino youth are 30 percent more likely to be adjudicated for delinquency and less likely to be waived to criminal court for case processing than black youth. Second, Lopez noted, the stories of Latina girls involved with the criminal justice system are not being heard. As a group, they comprised 25 percent of Latino juvenile arrests inbut otherwise data on this population are sparse. She said that, in her experience, these girls are often involved in multiple systems, including the behavioral health, child protective, and educational systems.
Just like all girls in the juvenile justice system, many Latina girls have histories of victimization and trauma, as well as substance abuse and mental health issues. Their parents may also be involved in the criminal justice system and face multiple stressors. Third, Lopez explained, current policies and practices are based on stereotypes and blame individuals, families, and culture for problems. She suggested that practitioners, who often hold negative views of Latina youth, could be more effective by taking a strengths- and family-based approach and listening to the girls themselves.
Many participants, including researchers, practitioners, and others, conveyed a sense of urgency that actions are needed in addition to more research. Promising Practices and New Ideas for Policy Various participants offered several ideas for promising practices and policies that could address social exclusion in the criminal justice system.
Some suggested that it would be beneficial to look to other systems e. Ultimately, said Jones-Brown and others, bringing together people from research, philanthropy, law enforcement, the faith community, and other fields to address issues in meaningful ways would be useful. Mauer noted two important data trends looking over the past 20 years that warrant further exploration: Mauer challenged participants to consider capping sentences for serious and violent offenders, a common practice in other developed nations.
A few participants said that productive discussions will need to address both the volume of nonviolent criminal justice activity and better ways for the system to respond to violent crimes, recognizing that many perpetrators have also been victims.
Several participants commented that systemic change requires multiple approaches. We need media strategy. We need more research. The material conditions of poverty and the reality of violence in everyday life could be themes of such an effort, he added: Part of what we do is record and document social realities that are often unpleasant or invisible or in conflict with prevailing official ideologies.
The Role of Research Several participants related that researchers should challenge their own theoretical assumptions, research paradigms, and ways of framing issues that may limit understanding of the effects of the criminal justice system.
Candice Jones Public Welfare Foundation noted that, especially at the intersection of race and criminal justice, research can be used as both a sword and a shield. Several participants noted the importance of language that researchers use to describe people and issues.
Using certain terms e. More than one participant noted the need for more diversity within academia. Betts suggested that researchers can also do more to foster inclusion through mentoring. Principles of proportionality in criminal justice should drive the future research agenda, according to several participants. John Laub University of Maryland noted that many theories suggest that social connections are important in keeping individuals out of the criminal justice system; when the criminal justice system contributes to social exclusion, it thus also contributes to even higher crime rates.
However, Jones questioned whether the criminal justice system could ever be seen as a tool of social inclusion. Broadening Methods and Voices Multiple participants suggested that academic researchers should include in their studies the voices and expertise of people who have experienced the criminal justice system. This approach includes combining quantitative with qualitative methods, as well as using participatory research approaches.
Even Serena Williams, a well-known athlete, was not taken seriously when she described her pain. It is true that the experiences of patients in hospital settings influence whether or not they return to healthcare facilities.
Black people are less likely to admit to hospitals however those that are admitted have longer stays than white people  The longer hospitalization of black patients does not improve care conditions, it makes it worse,  especially when treated poorly by faculty. Not a lot of minorities are admitted into hospitals and those that are receive poor conditioned treatment and care.
This discrimination results in misdiagnosis and medical mistakes that lead to high death rates. Although the Medicaid program was passed to ensure African Americans and other minorities received the healthcare treatment they deserved and to limit discrimination in hospital facilities, there still seems to be an underlying cause for the low number of black patients admitted to hospitals, like not receiving the proper dosage of medication.
Illnesses like cancer and heart diseases are more prevalent in minorities, which is one of the factors for the high mortality rate in the group. Although programs like medicaid exists to support minorities, there still seems to be a large number of people who are not insured. This financial drawback discourages people in the group to go to hospitals and doctors offices. When doctors have a bias on a patient, it can lead to the formation of stereotypes, impacting the way they view their patient's data and diagnosis, affecting the treatment plan they implement.