Hormonal (endocrine) system - Better Health Channel
Detailed information on hormones and their role in the workings of the endocrine system. The endocrine system is a series of glands that produce and secrete hormones that the body uses for a wide range of functions. These control many different. Chemical Messengers: The Endocrine System Uses Hormones to Control Body from the mammary glands and promotes bonding between mother and child.
These two triangular adrenal pronounced: The adrenal glands have two parts, each of which makes a set of hormones and has a different function: The outer part is the adrenal cortex.
The Endocrine System (Hormones) | Medical Terminology for Cancer
It makes hormones called corticosteroids pronounced: The inner part is the adrenal medulla pronounced: It makes catecholamines pronounced: Also called adrenaline, epinephrine increases blood pressure and heart rate when the body is under stress. It secretes melatonin pronounced: The gonads are the main source of sex hormones. Most people don't realize it, but both guys and girls have gonads.
In guys the male gonadsor testes pronounced: TES-teezare in the scrotum.
The endocrine system and hormones - Canadian Cancer Society
They secrete hormones called androgens pronounced: AN-druh-junzthe most important of which is pronounced: These hormones tell a guy's body when it's time to make the changes associated with puberty, like penis and height growth, deepening voice, and growth in facial and pubic hair.
Working with hormones from the pituitary gland, testosterone also tells a guy's body when it's time to make sperm in the testes. A girl's gonadsthe ovaries pronounced: OH-vuh-reezare in her pelvis. They make eggs and secrete the female hormones pronounced: Estrogen is involved when a girl starts puberty.
During puberty, a girl will have breast growth, start to accumulate body fat around the hips and thighs, and have a growth spurt. Estrogen and progesterone are also involved in the regulation of a girl's menstrual cycle. These hormones also play a role in pregnancy. PAN-kree-us makes insulin pronounced: IN-suh-lin and glucagon pronounced: GLOO-kuh-gawnwhich are hormones that control the level of glucoseor sugar, in the blood.
Triiodothyronine has similar functions to thyroxine. Calcitonin causes a decrease in the concentration of calcium in the blood. Calcitonin works with secretions from the parathyroid glands to maintain the balance of calcium necessary for the body to function.
People who have surgery to remove the thyroid gland thyroidectomy for cancer or other thyroid problems usually need to take thyroxine supplements in order to maintain normal weigh and body functions. The Parathyroids There are four Parathyroid glands which are small and rounded, arranged in two pairs usually located above and below the thyroid.
Each Parathyroid is small, yellow and smooth, sometimes they imbed themselves in the thyroid itself. Parathyroid hormone increases the blood concentrations of calcium and phosphorous, working to balance the Calcitonin which is secreted by the thyroid to maintain the body's balance of calcium.
The Pancreas The pancreas is a long, narrow, lobed gland located behind the stomach.The Endocrine System
The Pancreas has two types of cells: The exocrine cells secrete Pancreatic juices which are used in the duodenum as an important part in the digestive system. The endocrine cells are arranged in clusters throughout the Pancreas, these known as Islets of Langerhans.
There are three types of endocrine cells; alpha cells which secrete glucagon, beta cells which secrete insulin, and delta cells which inhibit the secretion on glucagon and insulin: Glucagon increases the blood glucose level by stimulating the liver causing convert Glycogen into Glucose sugar. Insulin increases the cells permeability to glucose, which the cells use for energy. By promoting the utilisation of glucose by the tissue cells, insulin causes a decrease in the concentration of glucose in the blood.
Insulin also promotes the storage of glycogen in the liver. The Adrenal Glands The adrenal glands resemble small caps perched on top of each kidney. The Adrenal is actually a combination of two glands the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. The adrenal cortex is essential for life, as opposed to the adrenal medulla which is important but not indispensable. The anterior pituitary controls the adrenal cortex by secreting the hormone ACTH.
All of the secretions of the adrenal cortex are known as steroids, many of which can now be manufactured synthetically.
The adrenal cortex is made up of three layers associated with three classes of hormones: Mineralocorticoids are produced by the outer layer of the adrenal cortex, the most important of which is aldosterone.
This helps to maintain both the electrolyte and water content of the body.
Glucocorticoids are produced by the middle cortex. These affect almost every cell in the body regulating the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Hormonal (endocrine) system
Cortisone is one such glucocorticoid. Gonadal hormones are produced by the inner cortex, there are roughly even amounts of two types of hormones secreted: Androgen male and Estrogen female. The adrenal gland is not the only gland to secrete sex hormones. The Adrenal Medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland.
The hormones secreted effect the structures in the body that are under the control of the sympathetic nervous system, aiding the body to deal with stressful situations such as fright, attack or pursuit.
They are both associated with an increased heart beat, higher blood pressure, and higher blood glucose levels, thus preparing the body for quick action.
Adrenalin or epinephrine affects both alpha and beta receptors in the nervous system. Noradrenalin Norepinephrine affects only the alpha receptors of the nervous system.
The endocrine system and hormones
The Gonads The gonads consist of ovaries in the female and testes in the male. These glands produce hormones important in the development and functioning of the reproductive organs.
Male testes are egg shaped glands located in the sac like scrotum, and serve two main functions: Testosterone is the masculizing hormone inducing male secondary sexual characteristics after puberty.
Female ovaries are two almond shaped glands on each side of the uterus. They have three main functions; i Containing immature ova eggsii The secretion of oestrogen, and ii the secretion of progesterone. Ostrogen is secreted by the adrenal cortex as well as the ovaries, and is present in the blood of all females from puberty through to the menopause.
This induces and maintains female secondary sexual characteristics. Progesterone works on the uterus to prepare it for the implantation of a fertilised ovum egg. It causes the development of the breasts, and is essential for the complete development of the maternal proportion of the placenta.