Politics-administration dichotomy - Wikipedia
sometimes subject to political manipulation—drive conflict in the Middle Belt. The rise of Boko Haram has heightened concerns about extremist recruitment in U.S.-Nigeria relations under the Trump Administration appear. Richard Joseph speaks with WBEZ on Boko Haram's presence in Nigeria, President against the U.S. that were leveled by the preceding Nigerian administration. by the United States government has aided and abetted the Boko Haram terrorists. There's talk about the U.S. re-establishing military relations with Nigeria. Political relations Our bilateral relations have seen unprecedented development since , relating in particular to the fight against the Boko .
In December, it carried out attacks in Damaturu killing over a hundred people, subsequently clashing with security forces in Decemberresulting in at least 68 deaths. Two days later on Christmas Day, Boko Haram attacked several Christian churches with bomb blasts and shootings. The campaign has gone through several phases and has greatly escalated in scale, capacity, components and stakeholders, since that time.
According to ReutersShekau took control of the group after Yusuf's death in The two hostages were killed before or during the rescue attempt. All the hostage takers were reportedly killed. September In MayNigerian government forces launched an offensive in the Borno region in an attempt to dislodge Boko Haram fighters after a state of emergency was called on 14 May.
The state of emergency, which was still in force in Mayapplied to the states of BornoYobeand Adamawa in northeastern Nigeria. In July, Boko Haram massacred 42 students in Yobe bringing the school year to an early end in the state. The abduction of another eight girls was also reported later.
These kidnappings raised public protests, with some protesters holding placards bearing the Twitter tag BringBackOurGirls which had caught international attention. The implementation of the emergency rule in Adamawa, Borno and Yobe states in Nigeria marked a turning point in Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. In Kano, on 20 January, Boko Haram carried out a deadly assault on police building killing Given the upsurge in the success recorded by the group against the upsurge in the success recorded by the group against security forces, many began to question the loyalty of the members of the Nigerian security force.
This came to a head on 8 Januarywhen the Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan announced that Boko Haram had, in fact, infiltrated the army and the police, as well as membership of the government. Unfortunately, the role of and abuses by this security force conspired to worsen the dire security condition in the area.
In addition to the failure of the JTF to protect lives and property, it lost the trust of the people an important resource in the battle against the insurgent groupas communities were also abused by the armed forces. Also, the high-handedness with which the members of the JTF prosecuted the fight against the insurgency helped to diffuse membership of the group from urban centres to the rural areas, enhancing an increased collateral damage.
The year witnessed the introduction of a new dimension to its insurgent activities by Boko Haram. Early into the year, the conflict spilled over the national borders to involve all four geographically contiguous countries in the sub-region namely Cameroun, Chad, Niger and Nigeria.
Added to this innovation, is the fact that Boko Haram in association with its splinter group Ansani, was linked to a number of kidnappings. The group kidnapped on different occasions seven French taunts in north of Cameroun in February, a French priest and other eight French citizens and obtained ransom payments for their release Bureau of Counterterrorism Furthermore, the increased insecurity in north-east Nigeria led the government to extend the state of emergency in May This development was met by increased tension in the three states affected Adamawa, Borno and Yobe as Boko Haram hightened the tempo of its insurgent activities.
As such, the total number of internally displaced persons increased fromto ,; an increase of per cent. Thousands of others fled the country Adrian The most notorious act of Boko Haram so far took place in Aprilwhen girls from Chibok town in Borno state were kidnapped. Although over 50 of them managed to escape, the incident brought the group pervasive global attention. Within the same period, Boko Haram announced the formation of Islamic Caliphate which included Gwoza, a strategic town north-eastern Nigeria.
The town of Bama, 70 kilometres from Maiduguri was equally captured increasing the reach of the new caliphate. Despite the aggression of the Nigerian security forces against Boko Haram and suspected collaborators sincethe group continues to recruit new members. The upward trend in violence since then suggests that the more security forces have intervened, the worse the crisis has become.
Bulking the Trend At the start ofBoko Haram controlled about 20 local government areas in north-eastern Nigeria a territory the size of Belgium.
Assisted by its foreign allies, the Nigerian army has declared in recent times that it had pushed back the insurgent group out of all but three local government areas in Bornu State Braun President Jonathan was criticized for not doing enough to tackle the insurgency in the north-east.
In a pre-election campaign, his main challenger Mohammadu Buhari chance was boosted by a reputation for toughness gained when he was military ruler of Nigeria between and Indeed, more than 13, people have been killed and some 1. In addition, cross-border attack launched from Boko Haram strongholds in Nigeria have threatened to destabilize neighbouring countries of Cameroun, Chad and Niger in the sub-region with increased security threats.
- Politics-administration dichotomy
- Boko Haram insurgency
- Boko Haram and the Nigerian State: a Different Perspective
To combat this menace, a sub-regional coalition force supported by the African Union Force was created. After series of negotiations, on 30 Novembera coalition force made up of soldiers from Benin, Cameroun, Chad, Niger and Nigeria was formed. Apart from the foregoing, on March 6,the African Union endorsed the creation of an additional regional force of up to 10, soldiers to join the fight against Boko Haram.
These forces have been particularly active in the Gamboru area of Nigeria on the border with Cameroun. A parallel joint Niger-Chad offensive retook Damasake from the insurgent group on March 27, Nossiter This came in the wake of the announcement by the Nigerian military that its troops recaptured the town of Gwoza from Boko Haram on March 20, Gwoza is important to the extent that it was from this town the insurgents declared their caliphate in While on the one hand the declaration could be seen as an attempt by the group to rescue its sinking ship given the fact that its previous allegiance was with al Qaedaon the other, it has the potential to raise the specter of violence and a stronger propaganda campaign that the Nigerian army, even with its influx of new weapons and African Union support, is much less equipped to combat.
France and Nigeria
Two weeks before the rescheduled elections in Nigeria, Boko Haram was said to have suffered more than it had for years Braun Though there was public relief that the insurgency was being blunted by the change in fortune for the group, it was unclear how effective the military operation had been.
The rapid chains of success by the Nigerian army in partnership with its allies left many Nigerian wondering why it took until the final days of the election campaign to begin containing the insurgent group. Many question how the government did in a few weeks what it could not for the last several years.
An important lesson should be drawn from previous experience by the Nigerian forces in dealing with Boko Haram. It is that after the declaration of the state of emergency in the north-east, Boko Haram went underground only to re-emerge later with more sinister tactics. Once again, the coalition forces should be mindful of a repeat performance. The narrative is that each sub-unit could resort to guerrilla warfare to prosecute the ideology of the group.
Consequently, Boko Haram would retreat from the rural areas where it currently faces intensive bombardment by the allied forces to the urban areas where they would regroup as multiple cells, which eventually would become the conduits for insurgency. There is no evidence, whatsoever, that Boko Haram has been defeated but it has been driven out of some territories.
In the past, it melted into the country side and the slums of urban centres where it regrouped and eventually resurfaced.Nigerians anxious over ties with new U.S. administration
While the regional assaults may have turned the tide against Boko Haram, but as a disrupted rather than decimated force, they still pose a significant threat to the sub-region. A Brief Background to the Present The ongoing religious insurgencies in northern Nigeria have received universal coverage.
Not only has the attention of the international audience been irked by the criminal activities of the Boko Haram sect, human right organizations both local and international have strongly opposed and condemned such atrocities.
Some governments like the United States of America have branded Boko Haram a terrorist group and has offered a reward of US 7m dollars for information about the where about of its leader, Abubakar Mohammad Shekau Bureau of Counterterrorism Islam spread to Nigeria in the eleventh century through Borno, in the north-east of the country.
Later, it spread to the Hausa land in the north-west as its established influence was felt in Kano and Katsina.
Boko Haram insurgency - Wikipedia
This linear progression continued until the second half of the eighteenth century. Besides, it was consummated by the revivalist and purities activities of Uthman Dan Fodio, who launched a Jihad in The Jihad lasted for the next six year Newman Instructively, Uthman Dan Fodio religions movement had a political undertone concerning state formation and state conflict. The product of this exercise was the forged unity among the Hausa states under Sharia Laws.
Subsequently, in the Hausa states became a party of the Islamic Caliphate of Sokoto which ruled most of the northern Nigeria until it was ended with partition in when the British incorporated it into the colony of northern Nigeria.
Regional conflict in Nigeria dates back to when a religious riot broke out in Kano. The major cause of the conflict could be trace to the strain political relationship between the Northern and Southern political leaders in the National Parliament in Lagos over issue of self government in However, the British Colonial Administration did little to address the basic issues that generated the crisis.
This negligence allowed the sour relationship in politics to be festered with religious pathologies. Throughout the period of colonialism, the British did little to change the status-quo-ante. After independence inattempts were made by northern leaders notably Ahmadu Bello, the Premier of Northern Region of Nigeria to revive the spread of Islam not only at the individual level, but also as an instrument of state craft.
Nevertheless, this was cut short by the military coup of January 15, which claimed the life of Ahmadu Bello and significant others. In historical context, the military regimes that ruled Nigeria majorly for the greater part of through are often accused of making the most daring attempts at Islamizing the country. Supportive of this school of thought is the fact that the,Constitutions were decreed into existence by the military with a mindset to elevate Sharia to the constitutional status.
This was widely speculated as the launching pad for religious insurgencies in Nigeria. In the late s, and earlythere were major Islamic uprisings led first by the Maitasine and later by the Yan Tatsme in northern Nigeria. Specifically, the s saw an upsurge in religious violence in northern Nigeria following the death of the Maitasine leader, Mohammed Marwa. This move aggravated the frontal relationship between Christians and Muslims communities in the country.
Upon the return to democratic rule inin Nigeria, Sharia the Muslim legal code was instituted into the main body of the civil and criminal laws in 9 Muslim majorities states and in some parts of 3 Muslim-plurality states in northern Nigeria. Consequently, there ensued the controversy over the status of non-Muslims in the Sharia legal system. This was followed by series of Christian-Muslim riots, killings and reprisals; notably in the central Nigerian state of Plateau.
The Ideology of Boko Haram For the past years, the Nigeria government has demonstrated clearly that it is fighting the war against Boko Haram insurgency without a clear understanding of the sects world view.
For a sect that morphed from a mere group of bandits to a group with international reach and armed with sophisticated weapons, it is imperative to understand its ideology.
Boko Haram was founded as a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist sect advocating strict form of Sharia law. It developed into a Salafist-Jihadist group ininfluence, perhaps by the Wahhabi movement Blanchard Primarily, it is wrong according to this perspective because it does not correspond to Islamic principles.
Thus, in order to get rid of this condition of repression and wrong doing, Boko Haram seeks to establish an Islamic state. As self-styled Sunnis, they want to return Islam to what they view as the interpretation of first generation Muslims.
This is a direct reference to the classical era of the caliphate. Arguably, the Caliphate represents one of the longest political institutions in human history. Though its lifespan started in right after the death of Mohammed it was abolished by Mustafa Kenal in Idowu-Fearon A critical turning point, however, in the Sunni revivalist approach to state management found its vent in Ayatollah Khomeini led Revolution in Iran in Like other Islamist, a common shared pride and nostalgia for the restoration of the Caliphate represents a general claim, irrespective of their sectarian membership Ray To realize this goal, the group intends to leave no stone unturned.
Its leader, Shekau notorious threat that gained international currency summarizes this position: Section 1, sub-section 1 of the Nigerian Constitution Also, in sub-section 2, the constitution specifies that the Federal Republic of Nigeria shall not be governed, nor shall any person or group of persons take control of the government of Nigeria or any part therefore, except in accordance with the provision of this constitution Furthermore, Section 38, sub-section 1 stipulates that every person shall be entitled to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, including freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom either alone or in community with others and in public or in private to manifest and propagate his religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance The Nigerian Constitution,