How a Russia-China political game resulted in Mongolian independence - Russia Beyond
Putin has declared that Russian-Chinese relations are “on the rise and . Han Qing, a doctor from the ancient Chinese capital of Xian who. “Russia's Romanovs, who had an antagonistic relationship with the Qing Dynasty , and had a long border with Mongolia, stirred the pot and. Like the Russians, the Qing Empire was affected by American food crops. It allowed China to not only prosper, but gain a majority employed.
Meanwhile, early Russian diplomatic missions to Beijingintended to promote commerce and to gauge the strength of the Chinese Empire, ran afoul of China's elaborate court ritual that the Russians neither understood nor respected.
The Russian exaction of tribute from tribal peoples whom the Qing considered their dependents, and the encroachment of armed Russian settlements along the Amur, led to military clashes between Russian and Chinese forces in the s. Inthe Treaty of Nerchinsk, the first modern international treaty between China and a European country, began to define a boundary between the two empires and established rules for regulating commercial intercourse.
The Treaty of Kiakhta in readjusted the commercial relationship, further defined the border, and granted Russia permission to build an Orthodox church in Beijing, which became the nucleus of Russian sinology.
Thereafter, relations stabilized for the next century on the basis of equality, reciprocity, limited commerce, and peace along the border. In the mid-nineteenth century, Russia seized the opportunity afforded by the decline of the Qing dynasty to expand its eastern territories at China's expense.
Its ultimate objective was to bolster its status as a European great power by playing an imperial role in East Asia.
Nikolai Muraviev, the governor-general of Eastern Siberia, was the most prominent of the new generation of empire builders who were determined to make Russia a Pacific power. Combining the threat of force with skillful diplomacy and blandishments, Muraviev and his peers imposed upon China the Treaties of AigunPekingand Tarbagataiwhich addedsquare miles 1, square kilometers to the Russian Empire in Central Asiaeastern Siberia, and the Maritime Province.
Russian occupation of Manchuria in during the Boxer Rebellion, an antiforeign Chinese nativist movement, and growing tension with imperial rival Japan over Manchuria and Korealed to the Russo-Japanese War and Russia's humiliating defeat.
In the aftermath of the collapse of the Qing dynasty inChina dissolved into civil war and chaos. A small but determined band of revolutionary Chinese intellectuals, disillusioned with Western liberal democracy, discovered in Russian Bolshevism a template for political action. Moscow dispatched veteran revolutionary Mikhail Borodin and hundreds of military and political advisers to China in the early s to guide the Chinese revolutionary movement to victory.
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The Comintern dictated strategy and tactics to the CCP. InChiang Kai-shekSun Yat-sen 's successor, severed his alliance with the CCP, slaughtered tens of thousands of communists, and expelled all the Soviet advisers. The revolutionary project lay in ruins.
Meanwhile, playing a complicated game, Bolshevik Russia and, afterthe Soviet Unionsuccessfully maneuvered to retain the imperial gains tsarist Russia had wrested from China in the preceding century. Under its new leader, Mao Zedongthe CCP continued to look toward Moscow for ideological and political guidance while pursuing its own path to power. On July 7,Japan's creeping aggression against China escalated into a full-scale war.
Qing VS Russia by Midori Naolu on Prezi
To deflect the threat of Japanese attack against Siberia and the Maritime Province, the USSR provided Chiang Kai-shek substantial military and financial aid in his lonely war of resistance against Japan. Soviet military advisers were attached to Chiang's armies, and Soviet pilots defended Chinese cities against Japanese attack.
Inhowever, Moscow signed a neutrality treaty with Tokyoand Soviet aid to China dried up. The renewed civil war in China — that followed hard upon victory in World War II culminated in the victory of the Chinese Communist Party and the establishment of the People's Republic of China on October 1, Although suspicious of Mao Zedongthe Soviet dictator Josef Stalin quickly extended diplomatic recognition to the new communist government and, after intensive negotiations, signed a thirty-year Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance on February 14,with the PRC.
Mao Zedong proclaimed that the Soviet Union provided a model of socialism for China to emulate.
Thousands of Soviet civilian and military experts flooded into China while tens of thousands of Chinese students studied in the USSR and the East European satellite states. Within a few years, however, a combination of Soviet high-handedness, Chinese suspicion, and differences over international political strategy eroded the bonds of Sino-Soviet friendship. West of Siberia, Russia slowly expanded down the Volga, around the southern Urals and out into the Kazakh steppe.
Later trade extended southeast to the main Asian trade routes at Bukhara. Under the Mongol Yoke, Russian princes would regularly travel to Sarai for investiture. When Marco Polo returned from China he mentioned Russia as an obscure country in the far north.
After the Russians reached Trans-Baikalia in the s, some trade developed, but it is poorly documented. At this point there were three routes: Early Russo-Chinese relations were difficult for three reasons: The language problem was solved when the Russians started sending Latin-speaking westerners who could speak to the Jesuit missionaries in Beijing. In Fyodor Baykov was sent as the first ambassador, but his mission failed because he was unwilling to comply with the rules of Chinese diplomacy.
It was apparently on his third trip that the Manchus realized that these people from the west were the same as those who were raiding the Amur. The next ambassador, Nicholae Milescu —78 was also unsuccessful. After months of fruitless arguments, he was given a blunt lecture about the proper behavior of tributary barbarians and sent home.
After the capture of Albazin ina few Russians, commonly referred to as Albazinianssettled in Beijing where they founded the Chinese Orthodox Church. Treaty of Nerchinsk [ edit ] After their first victory at Albazin inthe Manchus sent two letters to the Tsar in Latin suggesting peace and demanding that Russian freebooters leave the Amur. The resulting negotiations led the Treaty of Nerchinsk. The treaty said nothing about what is now Mongolia since that area was then controlled by the Oirat Zunghar Khanate.
After Nerchinsk regular caravans started running from Nerchinsk south to Peking. Some of the traders were Central Asians. The round trip took from ten to twelve months. The trade was apparently profitable to the Russians but less so to the Chinese.
The Chinese were also disenchanted by the drunken brawls of the traders. In the Oirats were defeated and driven back to the Altai Mountains Kangxi Emperor in person with 80, troops in a battle near Ulan Bator. This opened the possibility of trade from Baikal southeastward and raised the problem of the northern border of Outer Mongolia. The Manchus raised the question of the border west of the Argun. Ides returned to Moscow January From this time it was decided that the China trade would be a state monopoly.
Four state caravans travelled from Moscow to Peking between and The fourth returned via Selenginsk near Lake Baikal in 90 days and bore a letter from the Li-Fan Yuan suggesting that future trade use this route. A letter from Russian officials to Kangxi's court In Tulishen became the first Manchu or Chinese official to visit Russia not counting earlier visits to Nerchinsk.
China and Russia: Gaming the West
He was mainly interested in the Kalmyks along the Caspian Sea and how they might be used to deal with their cousins, the Oirats.
He left Peking in June and reached Tobolsk in August Here he learned that he could not see the Tsar because of the Swedish wars. He returned to Peking in April About this time the Kangxi Emperor began to put pressure on Saint Petersburg to delineate the Mongolian border west of the Argun, and several Russian caravans were held up. In July Lev Izmailov  was sent as ambassador to Peking where he dealt with Tulishen, but the Chinese would not deal with the trade problem until the border was dealt with.
Izmailov returned to Moscow in January Lorents Lange was left as consul in Peking, but was expelled in July He returned to Selenginsk and sent reports to Petersburg. Treaty of Kyakhta [ edit ] Just before his death, Peter the Great decided to deal with the border problem.
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- How a Russia-China political game resulted in Mongolian independence
The result was the Treaty of Kyakhta. This defined the northern border of what is now Mongolia except for Tuva and opened up the Kyakhta caravan trade southeast to Peking.