Young adults' estimates of their own textism use were linked to better informal writing for all participants, but to poorer formal writing for those.  all studied the relationship between children's texting behavior based formal grammar rules than written language, it is likely that effects of textese and the former is associated with informal interaction between peers. Rosen, L. D. et al. “The Relationship Between "Textisms" and Formal and Informal Writing Among Young Adults.” Communication Research.
SAT Writing Score, and 3. Mean Total Text Messages. Spreadsheet Two included data for analysis based on gender. This table included columns for: SAT Writing Score, and 4. This list was sorted by gender and divided into two groups—male and female. The strengths of these procedures included: Recording two consecutive months of text message data from the months before the students took the SAT test, for an accurate texting habit snapshot of the students during this time period.
Since there were two independent variables one categorical and one continuous and one continuous dependent variable, the ideal test for this study was a test that focused on multiple regression where data could be used for prediction between variables and the amount of variance they accounted for.
A multiple linear regression analysis to assess this data with the intended power of 0. Results A total of fully-completed questionnaires were obtained by the end of the collection period. There were 79 female respondents and 48 male respondents.Formal and Informal English Words - Learn English Vocabulary
Out of these questionnaires, 91 were collected via the paper version distributed to students in the Writing II classrooms and 36 were submitted to the researcher electronically through SurveyMonkey. The rest of the students provided hard copies of their cell phone bills. The range for this score was to points, indicating the mean score of these students to be almost perfectly in the middle range.
Lastly, the average monthly text message volume for this group was just over 2, text messages per month. The standard deviation for the SAT writing score was The standard deviation for gender was the expected. The standard deviation for average monthly text message volume showed the highest level of variety at 2, The resulting total degrees of freedom df was 77, with an F statistic of 0.
The F statistic was close enough to 1 that it failed to reject the null hypotheses. Since the alpha level of significance for this study was 0. Again, with the level of significance for this study set to. The histogram for partial regression in the SAT writing score correlation and P-Plot showed a relatively standard distribution for this test. Three scatter plots were produced to show any relationships between: The dot cluster for the first test did not show a significant positive or negative relationship between variables.
The Pearson correlation for all students was This data failed to reject the null hypothesis H01 which stated that there would be no significant relationship between the average number of text messages the entire collective sample sent and received per month and their formal writing performance on the SAT writing section. The dot cluster in the second test did not show a significant positive or negative relationship between variables.
The Pearson correlation for male students only was 0. This data failed to reject the null hypothesis H02 which stated that there would be no significant relationship between the average number of text messages male students sent and received per month and their formal writing performance on the SAT writing section. The dot cluster in the third test showed a negative relationship between variables.
The Pearson correlation for female students only was. This data rejected the null hypothesis H03showing a significant negative relationship between the average numbers of text messages female students sent and received per month and their formal writing performance on the SAT writing section. The results of research question 3 in this study were more closely related to the study by Rosen [ 7 ] whose research showed a negative correlation between texting volume and formal writing among young adults.
While two of the three tests showed no significant correlation, the results of research question 3 in the present study indicated that a relationship may exist between the number of text messages female students sent and received on average before taking the SAT and their formal writing performance on the SAT writing test.
For the analysis, the Pearson correlation for female students was This data may suggest that as female students mature beyond high school, the relationship between their text message frequency and quality of formal writing performance decreases. At the very least, the study showed the negative correlation between the SAT writing test and the average monthly volume of text messages for female students to be significant.
Their study indicated that text messaging was more popular with females and that males had a tendency to send shorter text messages than females.
The study by Rosen and his colleagues found that females reported using more contextual and linguistic textisms in comparison to males. A study ofstudents 54 percent female by Krista et al. Drouin [ 20 ] noted that: On the other hand, children who are proficient in textese, might have similar advantages as bilingual children have, as they might be considered a special type of bilinguals—in a different modality—having to switch between formal written language and textese.
This is so because various studies have shown superior performance on executive function tasks by bilingual children over monolingual children see [ 10 ]. Thus, the second aim of this study is to determine whether proficient texters have better-developed executive functions than non-proficient texters, similar to proficient bilingual children.
Identified textism categories range from 4 [ 1 ] to 11 [ 11 ]. In public opinion, use of textese by children and young adults has been linked to poor reading and writing skills and even language deterioration, as illustrated by a corpus study by Thurlow [ 4 ], who investigated opinions on texting and textese in newspapers.
Some studies have indeed found negative associations between frequency of use of textese and measures of spelling [ 2 ] and other tasks measuring abilities related to literacy such as verbal and nonverbal reasoning [ 12 ].
Specifically grammatical development is interesting in this respect because, as mentioned by Kemp and colleagues [ 2 ], grammar rules of conventional written language are often transgressed in textese. As a result, this lack of grammatical conventions might leak into registers other than textese. These studies have focused on the use of grammar in written language and have shown mixed results.
However, these findings are hard to interpret, as the authors did not calculate the textism ratio—which is a relative measure that takes text length into account—but used raw scores. In addition, textisms at the word level spellingrather than at the sentence level, were responsible for this effect. These observations have to do with missing and unconventional punctuation, missing capitalisation, word and grammatical errors missing words, lack of verbal agreement, verb and preposition merged; and grammatical homonyms.
No textisms at the word level were included in this measure. In a longitudinal follow-up study, Wood et al. For the primary school children, grammatical violations in their text messages did not predict development of their grammatical skills over the year. In sum, previous studies do not convincingly indicate that use of textese by children negatively affects their conventional writing and spelling abilities. If any association does exist between textism use and literacy, it appears to be positive.
Researchers suggest different reasons for this positive association.
One of the reasons is that writing text messages is fun and encourages children to play with language without having to worry about spelling conventions. Finally, use of textese could have a more general effect. Previous studies have shown that children know that textisms are not appropriate in, for example, school work. Hence, they are aware of the different registers they can employ. Two out of the four studies investigating this question found a negative association, whereas two other studies did not obtain any significant correlations.
Two of the four studies also included a receptive vocabulary task which we will turn to in the discussion section. In a related study, Kemp carried a study in Australia to examine the use and understanding of textisms and links with traditional language skills in young adults.
Using 61 participants with mean age of The study used questionnaire, text composition, spelling and reading tasks as data collection instruments. It, however, indicated that though the intrusion of textese was confirmed, it disagreed with the hopelessness expressed by the media about its spread into conventional writing.
The overall results suggested a positive correlation between use of textese and traditional language skills. It suggests that continuous use of textisms equally improves traditional language skills. Further interrogation of literature rather revealed dissimilar findings with respect to the effect of textisms on standardized English. Drouin and Drive are of the view that while textisms of omission e. Their results showed that research e.
For instance, in a study involving about 2, young adults aged 18 to 25, Rosen, Chang, Erwin, Carrier and Cheever found little use of textisms in formal writings. The effect is not as disturbing as is being painted.
The reviews discussed above are all based on imperial studies conducted in countries where the English language is the mother tongue. Results from studies conducted on non-native speakers of English may therefore not yield similar results. Learners and speakers of English as a second language L2 are presented with numerous problems due to conformance to standardized rules associated with its writing and speaking.
With the widespread use of the L1 native language in undertaking various activities, L2 learning and speaking tend to be a very tall mountain to climb.
Kannan intimates that to learn L2 requires constant practices and patience. This practice involves engagement in activities and processes where English is used as a medium of instruction.
The frequency at which the students type and send a text message is a significant factor in determining the effect of texting on student's spelling and writing.
It is believed that a student engages in some kind of word play, short spelling, and abbreviations. It is therefore believed that "prolonged exposure to the phonetic spellings of textisms could make it difficult to learn or apply grammar-based spelling rules" Wood et al. Wood and others added that these students might later find it difficult to write, learn or remember the correct spellings of the full forms. Though these claims need to be buttressed with an empirical study, there is a paucity of literature in this respect.
Thus, the focus of this research was to fill this gap through the following research questions: What IM applications do students use? How frequently do students use IM applications?
The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children
What forms of abbreviations textisms do students use in instant messaging? How does the use of textisms in communication affect students English writing skills as a second language?
Mixed methods data collection strategy was used allowing both quantitative and qualitative data to be collected. The use of mixed methods in the study is premised on the principle of triangulation, which seeks to ensure that the researcher uses more than one measurement procedure and invariably enhances trust in findings Bryman, Besides, this strategy for data collection allows for deeper insight into the problem at hand. One faculty member from the languages department was interviewed.
The students were randomly selected while lecturer was purposively chosen and interviewed. Random selection was done to ensure the results of the study are generalized to the population under study.
The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children
Items in the questionnaire included close-ended and open-ended items. Four items were reverse coded because they were negative statements. The interview schedule contained a few questions that sought to find out the effect of IM applications on students writing. The researcher accessed participants from their lecture rooms before the lecture starts.
Researcher accessed students during their lecture periods, established rapport with students and informed them of the purpose of the study. For easy completion of the questionnaire, the services of a gatekeeper was sought to help.
The questions were explained thoroughly to the gatekeeper to ensure proper completion of the items. Students who could complete the items did that quickly and the questionnaires were collected. Some pleaded to complete them and return them to class the following day for lack of time.
The interview schedule contained a few questions. The interview was conducted at the office of the respondent. The atmosphere during the interview was very favourable to solicit necessary data. The interview lasted about 10 minutes and was fruitful. Results Table 1 shows the descriptive statistics of the sample. Out of the respondents data analysed, 72 The mean age for the distribution was The minimum age was 20, the maximum age of 28 and a range of 8.
This was followed windows 7. Samsung brand of mobile devices also emerged as the most used brand This was closely followed by Techno brand The other category of brand refers to the other less familiar brands on the market currently.
These skills include spellings, punctuations, and capitalization of words. The first objective of the study sought to explore the kind of MIM used by students. The results are shown in Table 2. WeChat The results as shown Table 2 indicate that as many as 30 MIM applications were identified as applications used by students on their mobile devices. Each student had at least one mobile application they use for communication with friends and relatives.
Students were further asked to indicate their preferred and frequently used MIM application. The results are as shown in Figure 1. The telegram was the least preferred by students. Twitter and Instagram were also used by students but were not as heavily used as WhatsApp and Facebook. The second objective was intended to establish how frequently students use these applications in their communication with friends and other relations.
The results were as shown in Table 2. Out of the students, only four students 3. It could be concluded that an insignificant number do not use instant messaging at all. The third objective of the study sought to find out kinds of textisms or text speaks used by students in their communication on IM applications. Students were asked whether they use textisms in their messages. Table 4 displays the results.
Students were asked to write three textisms used in their conversations. Nevertheless, some textese could be coded to belong to two categories, e. Others indicated that it is cheaper, convenient and keeps the flow of conversation.
Table 4 shows that results of the effect. The majority asserted that the use predictive text which is a functionality in the application helps with the spelling of words when texting.