How did the nature of warfare change in the hundred years war. The present foot .. the lord vassal relationship did all of the following except. involve salary for. The personal aspect of lord-vassal relationship: Instead of an impersonal relationship based He was the soldier, as in medieval Europe all warriors ( except for the Germans did not have statutory laws but in practice they did follow customs. Which was NOT true regarding the relationship between vassal, lord, and king? How did improvements in armor dictate changes as to who could become a At its height, the Carolingian Empire included all of the following EXCEPT.
As co-ordinated cavalry superseded disorganized infantryarmies became more expensive to maintain. A vassal needed economic resources to equip the cavalry he was bound to contribute to his lord to fight his frequent wars. Such resources, in the absence of a money economy, came only from land and its associated assets, which included peasants as well as wood and water.
Difference between "vassalage" and "vassal state"[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message Many empires have set up vassal statesbased on tribes, kingdoms, or city-states, the subjects of which they wish to control without having to conquer or directly govern them. In these cases a subordinate state such as a dependencysuzeraintyresidency or protectorate has retained internal autonomy, but has lost independence in foreign policy, while also, in many instances, paying formal tributeor providing troops when requested.
In this framework, a formal colony or "junior ally" might also be regarded as a vassal state in terms of international relations, analogous to a domestic "fief-holder" or "trustee".
Vassal - Wikipedia
The concept of a vassal state uses the concept of personal vassaly to theorize formally hegemonic relationships between states — even those using non-personal forms of rule. Imperial states to which this terminology has been applied include, for instance: Statutory laws were a Roman tradition. Germans did not have statutory laws but in practice they did follow customs, which were called customary laws.
Customs varied region by region, therefore laws were not uniform in the Germanic states. Eventually, they would try to establish uniform laws. Eventually there developed a divergence between English and continental legal practices: The relationship between church and state: Although church and state were separate at the beginning of feudalism, as time went on, both tried to penetrate into the other.
Many churches were becoming large lords, owning large estates, many vassals and serfs. They also influenced and regulated society through controlling marriages, divorces, and abortion. On the other hand, many feudal lords also tried to control churches as the latter now became such lucrative estates.
Nobles tried to appoint their relatives and friends into church positions, and even the position of the pope. Kings, or emperors tried to use their appointees to church positions to weaken the feudal nobles who owned the land around the church.
Kings and church's fight would culminate in a period of time when two or even three popes coexisted, each supported by one faction.
The breakdown of the feudal relationships Personal rule and personal ownership of landed property: In theory, the king owned the whole country. In reality, his ability to actually control the country very much depended on his personal power. With a weak king, the fief he assigned to his followers were often kept perpetually.
The change of state borders with different marriage alliances: Primogeniture and the popularization of last names: In both France and the Holy Roman Empire, for hundreds of years they elected their kings and picked the small nobles to rule as king, thereby keeping him weak and subdued by the other nobles.
As the nobles started to perpetuate the fiefs down the generations, they started a new practice of inheritance,called premogeniture: To legitimate their ownership of the fief, they also started to use last names more, often taken from the name of their property. The fate of the younger sons: Some times if they were lucky enough, they could actually get married to an heiress and then settle down on a piece of land.
Other elements that adversely affected feudalism.
Two other elements also adversely affected feudalism: After the 11th century, commerce started to pick up and cities began to grow. Professionals and merchants formed into guilds that protected trade from outsiders and regulated the trade of the guild members.
Within guilds the relationship was equal, instead of hierarchical, like in the feudal countryside. Landed property did not matter much to the guild members, who cared more for their workshops and skills for the handicraftsmen, or money, for the merchants. In the 11th to the 13th centuries, the Europeans had a series of military clashes with the Muslims in the Near East and North Africa, called the Crusades.
The slogan behind the crusades was to recover the holy land of Jerusalem from the Muslims. While they ultimately achieved nothing with regard to land, the crusaders brought back from the former Greek and Roman realms large quantities of books by ancient Greek and Roman writers, who wrote about the importance of the human being, civic matters, literature, political treatises, and history.
These human centered, instead of God centered writings, plus the Greek and Roman use of logic, which was dismissed by Europeans during the Middle Ages, led to debates of which comes first, faith or reason.